Where do all cells that make up blood originate?
Connective tissue of bone marrow
What are two main blood cell types that move freely between blood and other connective tissues?
Lymphocytes and monocytes
What is normal blood pH range?
What % of total body weight is blood?
What % of blood is plasma?
What % of formed elements in blood are white blood cells?
What % of blood plasma is protein? Water? Other Solutes?
Protein 7%. Other solutes 1.5%. Water 91.5%.
What does hematocrit mean?
% of blood occupied by erythrocytes
What is the normal hematocrit in males?
What is the normal hematocrit in females?
What is the name for the condition in which not enough RBC's or hemoglobin is present?
What is the name for the condition where too many RBC's are present?
What is polycethemia and what are the clinical outcomes?
The presence of too many RBC's (over 65%). Dehydration, tissue hypoxia.
A patient has tissue hypoxia and dehydration, his erythrocyte count is over 65% of total blood. What is the name for this condition?
Name some functions of blood
Gas transport, pH regulation, temperature regulation, nutrient/waste transport, protection from disease and foreign matter, hormone/signal transport, coagulation.
Sickle cell anemia is caused by...
Substitution of glutamic acid on the 6 position of hemoglobin's β chain by a hydrophobic valine residue. This leads to the formation of haemoglobin fibres which disrupt normal cell shape and lead to blood vessel obstruction (which leads to tissue damage).
Name 3 granulocytes
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils.
Name 2 agranulocytes
Elevated levels of neutrophils indicates...
Bacterial infection (they respond quickly to bacterial infection)
What % of total leukocytes do neutrophils normally make up?
Elevated levels of eosinophils indicates...
Parasitic, protozoal, or helminthic infection (eosinophil granules are cytotoxic to parasites). Or allergic reaction.
What % of total leukocytes do eosinophils normally make up?
Elevated levels of basophils indicates...
Inflammatory/allergic response. Or hypothyroid condition.
What % of total leukocytes do basophils normally make up?
Elevated levels of lymphocytes indicates...
Chronic or viral infection.
What % of total leukocytes do lymphocytes normally make up?
Elevated levels of monocytes indicates...
Fungal or viral infection.
What % of total leukocytes do monocytes normally make up?
B-cells, T-cell, and natural killer cells are all ______
What is the function of monocytes?
Infiltrate tissue at site of injury and transform into macrophages (this is a delayed response, but they arrive in larger numbers).
A patient is found to have a low basophil count, what condition should you suspect?
Either allergic reaction or a hypothyroid condition.
What is the function of T-cells?
Cell mediated immunity, attack viruses, fungi, transplanted organs, cancer cells, and some bacteria.
What is the function of B-cells?
What do natural killer cells do? What type of leukocyte are they?
The attack many different microbes and some tumor cells. They are lymphocytes.
What is the function of thrombocytes?
Surveillance of blood vessels, clot formation, and injured tissue repair.
Outline the 3 steps of platelet plug formation
Platelet adhesion (to exposed collagen underlying damaged endothelial cells). Platelet release reaction (extension of projections to make contact with each other). Platelet aggregation (activated platelets stick together to activate ne platelets, you get a platelet plug).
What is the function of factor XIII during clot formation?
Stabilizes fibrin threads after clot retraction.