Chemistry CH 2

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Chemistry CH2 vocab

acid

Arrhenius: substance that increase H+ concentration when added to water

(Bronsted: a substance that donates a H+)

(Lewis Acid: a species that can donate a pair of electrons)

alkali metal

an element from Group 1A with the exception of H (I.E., Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr)

alkaline earth metal

an element from Group 2A (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra)

alkane

hydrocarbons having the general formula C(n)H(2n+2)

allotrope

one of two or more distinct forms of an element

alpha particle

a helium ion with a positive charge of +2

alpha ray

see alpha particle

anion

an ion with a negative charge

atom

the basic unit of an element that can enter into chemical combination

atomic ion

atom that has lost or gained one or more electrons, giving it a positive or negative charge

atomic mass

the mass of the atom given in atomic mass units (amu)

atomic mass unit

a mass exactly equal to 1/12 the mass of one carbon-12 atom

atomic number (Z)

the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of an element

atomic weight

the average atomic mass

Beta particle

an electron

Beta ray

see beta particle

Binary (compound)

a substance that consists of just two different elements

Cation

an ion with a positive charge

Chalcogens

elements in Group 6A (O, S, Se, Te, and Po)

Chemical formula

chemical symbols and numerical subscripts used to denote the composition of the substance

diatomic molecule

a molecule that contains two atoms

electron

a negatively charged subatomic particle found outside the nucleus of all atoms

empirical formula

the chemical formula that conveys with the smallest possible whole numbers the ratio of combination of elements in a compound

family

the elements in a vertical column of the periodic table

functional group

the part of a molecule characterized by a special arrangement of atoms that is largely responsible for the chemical behavior of the parent molecule

gamma rays

high-energy radiation

group

the elements in a vertical column of the periodic table

halogens

the elements in Group 7A (F, Cl, Br, I, and At)

heteronuclear

containing two or more different elements

homonuclear

containing atoms of only one element

hydrate

a compound with a specific number of water molecules within its solid structure

hydrocarbon

a compound containing only carbon and hydrogen

inorganic compounds

compounds that do not contain carbon or that are derived from nonliving sources

ion

atom or molecule that has lost or gained one or more electrons giving it a positive or negative charge

ionic compound

substance consisting of ions held together by electrostatic attraction

ionizable hydrogen atom

a hydrogen atom that can be lost as a hydrogen ion, H+

isotope

atoms that have the same atomic number (Z) but different mass numbers (A)

lattice

a 3d array of cations and anions

law of conservation of mass

an alternative statement of the first law of thermodynamics stating that matter can be neither created nor destroyed

law of definite proportions

different samples or a given compound always contain the same elements in the same mass ratio

law of multiple proportions

different compounds made up of the of the same elements differ in the number of atoms each kind that combine

mass number (A)

the number of neutrons and protons present in the nucleus of an atom of an element

metal

element with a tendency to lose electrons, located left of the zigzag line on the periodic table

metalloid

elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals

molecular formula

a chemical formula that gives the number of atoms of each element in a molecule

molecule

a combination of two or more atoms in a specific arrangement held together by chemical bonds

monatomic ion

an ion that contains only one atom

neutron

an electrically neutral subatomic particle with a mass slightly greater than that of a proton

noble gases

elements in group 8A (He, NE, AR, Kr, De, and Rn)

nonmetal

element with a tendency to gain electrons, located in the upper right porition of the periodic table

nucleons

protons, neutrons, and electrons

nucleus

the central core of the atom that contains the protons and neutrons

organic compounds

compounds containing carbon and hydrogen, sometimes in combination with other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and the halogens

oxoacid

an acid consisting of one or more ionizable protons and an oxoanion

oxoanion

a polyatomic anion that contains one or more oxygen atoms bonded to a central atom

period

a horizontal row of the periodic table

periodic table

a chart in which elements having similar chemical and physical properties are grouped together

polyatomic ion

molecule that has lost or gained one or more electrons giving it a positive or negative charge

polyatomic molecule

molecules containing more than two atoms

polyprotic acid

an acid with more than two ionizable protons

proton

a positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom

radiation

the emission and transmission of energy through space in the form of waves

radioactivity

the spontaneous emission of particles or radiation from unstable nuclei

structural formula

a chemical formula that shows the general arrangement of atoms within the molecule

transition elements

an element that has-or readily forms one or more ions that have-an incompletely filled d subshell

transition metals

the elements in group 1B and groups 3B to 8B

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