The total number of people divided by the total land area
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
The region in which innovative ideas originate
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
the spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected
a compass direction such as north or south
the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume
The spread of something over a given area
The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.
A measure of distance using known locations and direction in reference to other known locations.
The arrangement of something across Earth's surface
An earlier approach to the study of geography. It was the study of how physical environment caused human activities
location of places with respect to a fixed grid or reference system such as latitude and longitude
a location of a place in relationship to the features around it
The physical Character of a place
The location of a place relative to other places
clustered or concentrated at a certain place
no specific order or logic behind its arrangement
a quality or feature of something
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
An area organized around a nodal or focal point
An area that people believe to exsist as part of their cultural identity
The relationship between the portion of earth being studied and the earth as a whole
the physical magnitude of something (how big it is)
pertaining to or involving or having the nature of space
the ease of getting to a place; a variable quality of location
the degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places
an interconnected system of things or people
The diminishing in importance and eventual dissappearence of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
Friction of Distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between 2 places.
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
the connection the people of the same culture feel with one another
a landscape that has been changed by human beings and that reflects their culture
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct traditions
Diffusion of a process with negative side effects
A computer system that organizes analyzes and displays geographic data
A system that determines the precise position of something on earth through a series of satellite tracking stations and recievers
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator
an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles
The numbering system used to indicate the location of the meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian
the meridian designated as 0 degrees longitude which passes through the royal observatory at Greenwich England
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180 degree longitude although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing lands.
A two dimensional or flat representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it
indicates the relationship between the distances on the actual distances on the earth.
shows climate, vegetation, natural resources, population density, economic activity, historical trends, movement, etc...
a graphic representation of elements of importance or interest pertaining to a theme
A presentation of statistical data in geographical distribution on a map
a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area
line connecting points on a map having some similar feature
An internal representation of a portion of earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place,containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located
Demographic Transition Model
A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and decreases equally the further from the location.
the extent to which members of one culture have contact with members of another culture
a sum of money given by the wife's family to the husband upon marriage
a statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote)
a social distinction based on culturally conceived and learned ideas about appropriate appearance, behavior, and mental or emotional characteristics for males and females
A major gap in between the two genders
kill infants of other males
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
the unwritten literature (stories and proverbs and riddles and songs) of a culture
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
ideas, knowledge and beliefs that influence people's behavior
widely shared beliefs, tastes, goals, and practices
pattern of land division used in an area
traditional building styles of different cultures, religions, and places
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
A collectio of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relativity recent past and display relativly few differences in grammer and vocabulary
a smaller group of related languages within a language family
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
using or knowing more then one language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammer and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages
The name given to a portion of earth's surface
migration of people to a specific location becasue relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
The merging of cultural traits from previously distinct cultural groups not involving biological amalgamation
Adjusting a translation based on the cultural environment of the target language
Process in which more powerful group forcibly removes a less powerful one in orderto create an ethnically homogenous region
type of conflict that occurs when different tribes are lumped together to form a country
a small area occupies by a distinctive minority culture
Belonging or deriving from the cultural racial, religious, or linguistic traditions of a people or country
inhabited by an ethnic minority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region and often exercises some measure of political and social control over it
Identity with a group of people that share distict physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions
Belief that objects such as plants and stones or natural events liike thunderstorms and earthquakes have a discrete spirit and conscious life
a religion represented by the many groups (especially in Asia) that profess various forms of the Buddhist doctrine and that venerate Buddha
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity
a religion identified with a particular ethnic group and largely exclusive to it
a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.
an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion
A body of religious and philosophical beliefs native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation
boundaries between the major religions
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
practice of believing in one god
practice of believing in more then one god
the doctrines and practices of the Mormon Church based on the Book of Mormon
a second or new birth
this is the conflicts between religions. Israel-Palestine
Places sacred to certain groups
secular opinion or belief, especially a system following a political or social philosophy that rejects religious faith
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
the Shia believe that leader is called an imam and this "caliph/imam" should be a direct descendant of Mohammed
A Chinese philosophy in which people live a simple life in harmony with nature.
the belief in government by divine guidance
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people not just those living in a particular location
Legally adding land area to a city in the united states
Laws in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas
the process of a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units
When a physical feature such as a mountain or river determine a political boundary
Political Boundaries that correspond with physical features such as mountains or rivers.
a small neutral state between two rival powers
wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value
An attitude that tends to create separation from centralization of authority rather than pulling them together.
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state rather than divide them
A soverign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
a small group of indispensable persons or things
the outside boundary or surface of something
the action of changing from colonial to independent status
the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
A zone separating two states in which neither state excersicers political control
the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state
the central region of a country or continent
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea
Law of the Sea
Law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources.
a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
A state that encompasses a very small land area
a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
the act of coming together again
Country controlled by a more powerful nation
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
A nationality that is not represented by a state.
The right or privilege of voting.
Any dispute over land ownership
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
A state with a long narrow shape
a state that completely surrounds another one
the act of collecting in a mass
Illegal practice of inducing homeowners to sell their properties by telling them that a certain people of a certain race, national origin or religion are moving into the area
Central Business District
The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
An area deliniated by the us beureau of the census for which statisitcs are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
the act of consolidating power under a central control
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services
City established by colonizing empires as administrative centers.
the act of commercializing something
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
net migration for urban to rural areas in more developed countries
the spread of power away from the center to local branches or governments
an area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background
a poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
a remote and undeveloped area located around an urban area
the older and more populated and (usually) poorer central section of a city
cities with populations of ten million or more
a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)
Multiple Nuclei Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
A city built to a definite plan
a city that ranks first in a nation in terms of population and economy
Rank Size Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country such that the largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors or wedges radiating out from the central business district
the act of segregating or sequestering
a district of a city marked by poverty and inferior living conditions
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
a network of horizontal and vertical lines that provide coordinates for locating points on an image
a residential district located on the outskirts of a city
The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe.
movement of people from rural areas to cities
Energy generated by the Sun
The four cycles of weather and temperature
an area that has little precipitation because some barrier causes the winds to lose their moisture before reaching it
the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time
Temperatures and climate
One of the principal land masses of the earth, usually regarded as including Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.
The physical aspect of a country or region
the time when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator, making night and day of approximately equal length all over the earth and occurring about March 21
either of the two times a year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator: about June 21, when the sun reaches its northernmost point on the celestial sphere, or about December 22, when it reaches its southernmost point.
the precipitation that occurs when moist air rises up the sides of a mountain. as the air rises, it cools down and releases most of its moisture as rain or snow
any of the geographical zones loosely divided according to prevailing climate and latitude
the act of making some area of land or water more profitable or productive or useful
The consuming of energy
Gross Domestic Product
The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period
Gross National Product
The value of the total output of goods and services produced nationally in a given period of time
Human Development Index
Indicator level of the development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
Purchasing Power Parity
a measure of how many units of currency are needed in one country to buy the amount of goods and services that one unit of currency will buy in another country
The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
the trading of technology from place to place
The region of the world containing a high concentration of underdeveloped or emergent countries.
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions combine with water
Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ntrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and solid particulates at a greater level then occurs in average air
manufacturers of aluminum considered as a group
Assembly Line Production
workers performed a single task repetitively
loss of the industrial activity in a region
tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature
Natural resources that can be converted into energy
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
Mexican factorys that assemble parts to make product for export
a group's system of economic production; key factor in shaping their culture; dependent on environment & technology
commercial firms that have developed w/ or stemmed out of agriculture
the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock
genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
government-owned farms and employed large numbers of workers; all crops distributed by the gov't
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
First Agricultural Revolution
10,000 years ago achieved plant and animal domestication
the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
Hunting and Gathering
To chase or search for game/to bring together into one group
The procuring of services or products, such as the parts used in manufacturing a motor vehicle, from an outside supplier or manufacturer in order to cut costs
thinning of Earth's ozone layer caused by CFC's leaking into the air and reacting chemically with the ozone, breaking the ozone molocules apart
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
a form of subsistance agriculture that requires larg amounts of labor to make the largest crop possible on small plots of land
Specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails
the act of extracting ores or coal etc from the earth
an economy in which government directs the use of national resources and regulates the economy to achieve both goals and stability.
raising a large amount of a "cash crop" for local sale or export
A resource that can be replaced in a short period of time.
A resource a resource that can not be replaced within a short period of time
Second Agricultural Revolution
In the 19th c. allowed a shift in work force beyond subsistence farming to allow labor to work in factories.
Third Agricultural Revolution
currently in progress, development of genetically modified organisms
concentrates on patterns of human activity and on their relationships with the environment.
an area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.
the physical gap or interval between two objects
a specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character
the science of making maps
The frequency with which something exists withen a given unit
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
true shapes of landmasses but distorts the size
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Space Time Compression
The reduction in time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
The position of anything on Earth's surface.
Average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions.
The portion of the Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
shape on Earth's surface, such as hills and mountains
Permanent movement within a particular country
Natural Increase Rate
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as a crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Crude Birth Rate
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Crude Death Rate
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime
the number of individuals per unit area
numbers that it takes a population to double in size
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Factors that induce people to leave old residences.
Factors that induce people to move to a new location.
Large-scale emigration by talented people
In reference to migration, laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of in search of higher-paying jobs.
Migration from a location
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location
5 Pillars of Islam
the principles by which Muslims live their lives
a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity
Differences among groups of people based on their origins, languages, customs, or beliefs
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality
state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
a group of related languages spoken in Asia and southeastern Europe
Sate that contains more than one ethnicity.
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
the number of people in an area exceeds that capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
the amount of land inside the borders of a state or country
an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
More Developed Countries (MDC)
a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development
Less Developed Countries (LDC)
a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development
a segment or section of an economy, such as farming, manufacturing, mining, and transportation
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
the portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities.
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
something that has consolidated into a compact mass
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste
energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
Infant Mortality Rate
the number of deaths in the first year of life for every 1,000 live births
migration to a new location
the people who inhabit a territory or state
One Child Policy
Act in China that allows people to have only 1 child in the city and 2 children in the countryside created in 1980
The ratio between two sets of dimensions.
A ruler printed on the map and is used to convert distances on the map to actual ground distances
A method of representing the surface of a sphere or other shape on a plane.
Robinson Map Projections
A map projection of a world map, which shows the entire world at once
Goode's Homolosine Projection
Shows continents but distorts ocean
displays all great circles as straight lines
built-in potential for population growth due to a large number of individuals entering reproductive age
Stationary Population Pyramid
A population pyramid typical of countries with low fertility and low mortality
Constrictive Population pyramid
population pyramid showing lower numbers or percentages of younger people
Expansive Population Pyramid
A population pyramid showing a broad base, indicating a high proportion of children, a rapid rate of population growth, and a low proportion of older people
Extending beyond or transcending established borders or spheres of influence held by separate nations:
maintained that the world can be divided into four types of region.
Von Thunen's model
Model which shows the location of agriculture in regard to a commercial economy that is similar to the concentric model
1st Pillar of Islam
There is no other God except Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger."
2nd Pillar of Islam
Pray 5 times a day toward Mecca
3rd Pillar of Islam
giving alms to the poor
4th Pillar of Islam
Ritual fast during the holy month of Ramadan
5th Pillar of Islam
Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca
Four ways to define a location
1. Place Name
4. Mathematical Location
Forms of Map Scale
1st Stage of the Demographic Transition Model
Birth rate and Death Rate Low.
Natural Increase Rate Low
Stone Age Period of Development
2nd Stage of the Demographic Transition Model
Birth Rate High.
Death Rate Declining
Natural Increase Rate High
Less Developed Country
3rd Stage of the Demographic Transition Model
Birth Rate Declining.
Death Rate Low
Natural Increase Rate Moderate
4th Stage of the Demographic Transition Model
Birth Rate and Death Rate Low
Natural Increase Rate Low
Zero Population Growth
More Developed Country