The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
the spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected
The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.
A measure of distance using known locations and direction in reference to other known locations.
An earlier approach to the study of geography. It was the study of how physical environment caused human activities
location of places with respect to a fixed grid or reference system such as latitude and longitude
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
The diminishing in importance and eventual dissappearence of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
Friction of Distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between 2 places.
a landscape that has been changed by human beings and that reflects their culture
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct traditions
A system that determines the precise position of something on earth through a series of satellite tracking stations and recievers
The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator
an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles
The numbering system used to indicate the location of the meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian
the meridian designated as 0 degrees longitude which passes through the royal observatory at Greenwich England
International Date Line
An arc that for the most part follows 180 degree longitude although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing lands.
shows climate, vegetation, natural resources, population density, economic activity, historical trends, movement, etc...
a graphic representation of elements of importance or interest pertaining to a theme
a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area
An internal representation of a portion of earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place,containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located
Demographic Transition Model
A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and decreases equally the further from the location.
the extent to which members of one culture have contact with members of another culture
a statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote)
a social distinction based on culturally conceived and learned ideas about appropriate appearance, behavior, and mental or emotional characteristics for males and females
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
A collectio of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relativity recent past and display relativly few differences in grammer and vocabulary
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammer and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages
migration of people to a specific location becasue relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
The merging of cultural traits from previously distinct cultural groups not involving biological amalgamation
Adjusting a translation based on the cultural environment of the target language
Process in which more powerful group forcibly removes a less powerful one in orderto create an ethnically homogenous region
type of conflict that occurs when different tribes are lumped together to form a country
Belonging or deriving from the cultural racial, religious, or linguistic traditions of a people or country
inhabited by an ethnic minority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region and often exercises some measure of political and social control over it
Identity with a group of people that share distict physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions
a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions
Belief that objects such as plants and stones or natural events liike thunderstorms and earthquakes have a discrete spirit and conscious life
a religion represented by the many groups (especially in Asia) that profess various forms of the Buddhist doctrine and that venerate Buddha
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.
an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it
A body of religious and philosophical beliefs native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
secular opinion or belief, especially a system following a political or social philosophy that rejects religious faith
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
the Shia believe that leader is called an imam and this "caliph/imam" should be a direct descendant of Mohammed
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people not just those living in a particular location
Laws in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas
Political Boundaries that correspond with physical features such as mountains or rivers.
wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value
An attitude that tends to create separation from centralization of authority rather than pulling them together.
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state rather than divide them
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Law of the Sea
Law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources.
a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
Illegal practice of inducing homeowners to sell their properties by telling them that a certain people of a certain race, national origin or religion are moving into the area
An area deliniated by the us beureau of the census for which statisitcs are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
a poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Multiple Nuclei Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
Rank Size Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country such that the largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors or wedges radiating out from the central business district
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
a network of horizontal and vertical lines that provide coordinates for locating points on an image
The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe.
an area that has little precipitation because some barrier causes the winds to lose their moisture before reaching it
One of the principal land masses of the earth, usually regarded as including Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.
the time when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator, making night and day of approximately equal length all over the earth and occurring about March 21
either of the two times a year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator: about June 21, when the sun reaches its northernmost point on the celestial sphere, or about December 22, when it reaches its southernmost point.
the precipitation that occurs when moist air rises up the sides of a mountain. as the air rises, it cools down and releases most of its moisture as rain or snow
any of the geographical zones loosely divided according to prevailing climate and latitude
Gross Domestic Product
The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period
Gross National Product
The value of the total output of goods and services produced nationally in a given period of time
Human Development Index
Indicator level of the development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
Purchasing Power Parity
a measure of how many units of currency are needed in one country to buy the amount of goods and services that one unit of currency will buy in another country
The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
The region of the world containing a high concentration of underdeveloped or emergent countries.
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions combine with water
Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ntrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and solid particulates at a greater level then occurs in average air
tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
a group's system of economic production; key factor in shaping their culture; dependent on environment & technology
genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
government-owned farms and employed large numbers of workers; all crops distributed by the gov't
the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
The procuring of services or products, such as the parts used in manufacturing a motor vehicle, from an outside supplier or manufacturer in order to cut costs
thinning of Earth's ozone layer caused by CFC's leaking into the air and reacting chemically with the ozone, breaking the ozone molocules apart
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
a form of subsistance agriculture that requires larg amounts of labor to make the largest crop possible on small plots of land
Specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails
an economy in which government directs the use of national resources and regulates the economy to achieve both goals and stability.
Second Agricultural Revolution
In the 19th c. allowed a shift in work force beyond subsistence farming to allow labor to work in factories.
concentrates on patterns of human activity and on their relationships with the environment.
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Space Time Compression
The reduction in time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions.
Natural Increase Rate
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as a crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Crude Birth Rate
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime
In reference to migration, laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of in search of higher-paying jobs.
Differences among groups of people based on their origins, languages, customs, or beliefs
state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
the number of people in an area exceeds that capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
More Developed Countries (MDC)
a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development
Less Developed Countries (LDC)
a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development
a segment or section of an economy, such as farming, manufacturing, mining, and transportation
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
the portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities.
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
One Child Policy
Act in China that allows people to have only 1 child in the city and 2 children in the countryside created in 1980
A ruler printed on the map and is used to convert distances on the map to actual ground distances
built-in potential for population growth due to a large number of individuals entering reproductive age
Stationary Population Pyramid
A population pyramid typical of countries with low fertility and low mortality
Constrictive Population pyramid
population pyramid showing lower numbers or percentages of younger people
Expansive Population Pyramid
A population pyramid showing a broad base, indicating a high proportion of children, a rapid rate of population growth, and a low proportion of older people
Extending beyond or transcending established borders or spheres of influence held by separate nations:
Von Thunen's model
Model which shows the location of agriculture in regard to a commercial economy that is similar to the concentric model
1st Stage of the Demographic Transition Model
Birth rate and Death Rate Low.
Natural Increase Rate Low
Stone Age Period of Development
2nd Stage of the Demographic Transition Model
Birth Rate High.
Death Rate Declining
Natural Increase Rate High
Less Developed Country
3rd Stage of the Demographic Transition Model
Birth Rate Declining.
Death Rate Low
Natural Increase Rate Moderate