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Arithmetic Density

The total number of people divided by the total land area

Physiological Density

The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture

Hearth

The region in which innovative ideas originate

Relocation Diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another

Expansion Diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process

Hierarchical Diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places

Contagious Diffusion

The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population

Stimulus Diffusion

the spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected

Absolute Direction

a compass direction such as north or south

Dispersion

the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume

Concentration

The spread of something over a given area

Absolute Distance

The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.

Relative Distance

A measure of distance using known locations and direction in reference to other known locations.

Distribution

The arrangement of something across Earth's surface

Environmental Determinism

An earlier approach to the study of geography. It was the study of how physical environment caused human activities

Absolute Location

location of places with respect to a fixed grid or reference system such as latitude and longitude

Relative Location

a location of a place in relationship to the features around it

Site

The physical Character of a place

Situation

The location of a place relative to other places

Centralized Pattern

clustered or concentrated at a certain place

Random Pattern

no specific order or logic behind its arrangement

Physical Attributes

a quality or feature of something

Possibilism

The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives

Formal Region

An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics

Functional Region

An area organized around a nodal or focal point

Vernacular Region

An area that people believe to exsist as part of their cultural identity

Scale

The relationship between the portion of earth being studied and the earth as a whole

Size

the physical magnitude of something (how big it is)

Spatial

pertaining to or involving or having the nature of space

Accessibility

the ease of getting to a place; a variable quality of location

Connectivity

the degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places

Network

an interconnected system of things or people

Distance Decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual dissappearence of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin

Friction of Distance

A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between 2 places.

Acculturation

the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture

Cultural Ecology

Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.

Cultural identity

the connection the people of the same culture feel with one another

Cultural Landscape

a landscape that has been changed by human beings and that reflects their culture

Culture

The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct traditions

Maladaptive Diffusion

Diffusion of a process with negative side effects

GIS

A computer system that organizes analyzes and displays geographic data

GPS

A system that determines the precise position of something on earth through a series of satellite tracking stations and recievers

Latitude

The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator

Equator

an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles

Longitude

The numbering system used to indicate the location of the meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian

Prime Meridian

the meridian designated as 0 degrees longitude which passes through the royal observatory at Greenwich England

International Date Line

An arc that for the most part follows 180 degree longitude although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing lands.

Map

A two dimensional or flat representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it

Map Scale

indicates the relationship between the distances on the actual distances on the earth.

Thematic Map

shows climate, vegetation, natural resources, population density, economic activity, historical trends, movement, etc...

Statistical Map

a graphic representation of elements of importance or interest pertaining to a theme

Cartogram Map

A presentation of statistical data in geographical distribution on a map

Choropleth Map

a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area

Isoline

line connecting points on a map having some similar feature

Mental Map

An internal representation of a portion of earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place,containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located

Demographic Transition Model

A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.

Gravity Model

A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and decreases equally the further from the location.

Social Distance

the extent to which members of one culture have contact with members of another culture

Dowry

a sum of money given by the wife's family to the husband upon marriage

Enfranchisement

a statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote)

Gender

a social distinction based on culturally conceived and learned ideas about appropriate appearance, behavior, and mental or emotional characteristics for males and females

Gender Gap

A major gap in between the two genders

Infanticide

kill infants of other males

Folk Culture

Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.

Folklore

the unwritten literature (stories and proverbs and riddles and songs) of a culture

Material Culture

The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture

Nonmaterial culture

ideas, knowledge and beliefs that influence people's behavior

Popular Culture

widely shared beliefs, tastes, goals, and practices

Survey Systems

pattern of land division used in an area

Traditional Architecture

traditional building styles of different cultures, religions, and places

Creole

A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated

Dialect

A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation

Isogloss

A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate

Language

A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning

Language Family

A collectio of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history

Language Group

A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relativity recent past and display relativly few differences in grammer and vocabulary

Language Subfamily

a smaller group of related languages within a language family

Lingua Franca

A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages

Multilingual

using or knowing more then one language

Official Language

The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents

Pidgin

A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammer and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages

Toponym

The name given to a portion of earth's surface

Chain migration

migration of people to a specific location becasue relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there

Assimilation

The merging of cultural traits from previously distinct cultural groups not involving biological amalgamation

Cultural Adaptation

Adjusting a translation based on the cultural environment of the target language

Ethnic Cleansing

Process in which more powerful group forcibly removes a less powerful one in orderto create an ethnically homogenous region

Ethnic Conflict

type of conflict that occurs when different tribes are lumped together to form a country

Ethnic Enclave

a small area occupies by a distinctive minority culture

Ethnic Group

Belonging or deriving from the cultural racial, religious, or linguistic traditions of a people or country

Ethnic Homeland

inhabited by an ethnic minority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region and often exercises some measure of political and social control over it

Ethnicity

Identity with a group of people that share distict physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions

Ethnocentrism

belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group

Plural Society

a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions

Animism

Belief that objects such as plants and stones or natural events liike thunderstorms and earthquakes have a discrete spirit and conscious life

Buddhism

a religion represented by the many groups (especially in Asia) that profess various forms of the Buddhist doctrine and that venerate Buddha

Christianity

a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior

Confucianism

the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity

Ethnic Religion

a religion identified with a particular ethnic group and largely exclusive to it

Exclave

a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.

Enclave

an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it

Fundamentalism

Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion

Hinduism

A body of religious and philosophical beliefs native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation

Interfaith Boundaries

boundaries between the major religions

Islam

the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran

Judaism

the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud

Monotheism

practice of believing in one god

Polytheism

practice of believing in more then one god

Mormonism

the doctrines and practices of the Mormon Church based on the Book of Mormon

Reincarnation

a second or new birth

Religious Conflict

this is the conflicts between religions. Israel-Palestine

Sacred Space

Places sacred to certain groups

Secularism

secular opinion or belief, especially a system following a political or social philosophy that rejects religious faith

Sharia Law

the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed

Sunni

a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad

Shia

the Shia believe that leader is called an imam and this "caliph/imam" should be a direct descendant of Mohammed

Taoism

A Chinese philosophy in which people live a simple life in harmony with nature.

Theocracy

the belief in government by divine guidance

Universalizing

A religion that attempts to appeal to all people not just those living in a particular location

Annexation

Legally adding land area to a city in the united states

Apartheid

Laws in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas

Balkanize

the process of a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units

Natural Boundary

When a physical feature such as a mountain or river determine a political boundary

Physical Boundary

Political Boundaries that correspond with physical features such as mountains or rivers.

Buffer State

a small neutral state between two rival powers

Capital

wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value

Centrifugal

An attitude that tends to create separation from centralization of authority rather than pulling them together.

Centripetal

An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state rather than divide them

City State

A soverign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland

Colonialism

Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory

Core

a small group of indispensable persons or things

Periphery

the outside boundary or surface of something

Decolonization

the action of changing from colonial to independent status

Devolution

the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states

Domino Theory

the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control

European Union

an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members

Frontier

A zone separating two states in which neither state excersicers political control

Geopolitics

the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state

Heartland

the central region of a country or continent

Landlocked

A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea

Law of the Sea

Law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources.

Manifest Destiny

a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)

Microstate

A state that encompasses a very small land area

Nation

a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity

Nation State

A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality

Reunification

the act of coming together again

Satellite State

Country controlled by a more powerful nation

Self-Determination

Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves

Sovereignty

Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states

State

An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs

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