# Honors Geography Final SLHS

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### Arithmetic Density

The total number of people divided by the total land area

### Physiological Density

The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture

### Hearth

The region in which innovative ideas originate

### Relocation Diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another

### Expansion Diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process

### Hierarchical Diffusion

The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places

### Contagious Diffusion

The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population

### Stimulus Diffusion

the spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected

### Absolute Direction

a compass direction such as north or south

### Dispersion

the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume

### Concentration

The spread of something over a given area

### Absolute Distance

The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.

### Relative Distance

A measure of distance using known locations and direction in reference to other known locations.

### Distribution

The arrangement of something across Earth's surface

### Environmental Determinism

An earlier approach to the study of geography. It was the study of how physical environment caused human activities

### Absolute Location

location of places with respect to a fixed grid or reference system such as latitude and longitude

### Relative Location

a location of a place in relationship to the features around it

### Site

The physical Character of a place

### Situation

The location of a place relative to other places

### Centralized Pattern

clustered or concentrated at a certain place

### Random Pattern

no specific order or logic behind its arrangement

### Physical Attributes

a quality or feature of something

### Possibilism

The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives

### Formal Region

An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics

### Functional Region

An area organized around a nodal or focal point

### Vernacular Region

An area that people believe to exsist as part of their cultural identity

### Scale

The relationship between the portion of earth being studied and the earth as a whole

### Size

the physical magnitude of something (how big it is)

### Spatial

pertaining to or involving or having the nature of space

### Accessibility

the ease of getting to a place; a variable quality of location

### Connectivity

the degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places

### Network

an interconnected system of things or people

### Distance Decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual dissappearence of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin

### Friction of Distance

A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between 2 places.

### Acculturation

the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture

### Cultural Ecology

Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.

### Cultural identity

the connection the people of the same culture feel with one another

### Cultural Landscape

a landscape that has been changed by human beings and that reflects their culture

### Culture

The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct traditions

Diffusion of a process with negative side effects

### GIS

A computer system that organizes analyzes and displays geographic data

### GPS

A system that determines the precise position of something on earth through a series of satellite tracking stations and recievers

### Latitude

The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator

### Equator

an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles

### Longitude

The numbering system used to indicate the location of the meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian

### Prime Meridian

the meridian designated as 0 degrees longitude which passes through the royal observatory at Greenwich England

### International Date Line

An arc that for the most part follows 180 degree longitude although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing lands.

### Map

A two dimensional or flat representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it

### Map Scale

indicates the relationship between the distances on the actual distances on the earth.

### Thematic Map

shows climate, vegetation, natural resources, population density, economic activity, historical trends, movement, etc...

### Statistical Map

a graphic representation of elements of importance or interest pertaining to a theme

### Cartogram Map

A presentation of statistical data in geographical distribution on a map

### Choropleth Map

a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area

### Isoline

line connecting points on a map having some similar feature

### Mental Map

An internal representation of a portion of earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place,containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located

### Demographic Transition Model

A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.

### Gravity Model

A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and decreases equally the further from the location.

### Social Distance

the extent to which members of one culture have contact with members of another culture

### Dowry

a sum of money given by the wife's family to the husband upon marriage

### Enfranchisement

a statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote)

### Gender

a social distinction based on culturally conceived and learned ideas about appropriate appearance, behavior, and mental or emotional characteristics for males and females

### Gender Gap

A major gap in between the two genders

### Infanticide

kill infants of other males

### Folk Culture

Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.

### Folklore

the unwritten literature (stories and proverbs and riddles and songs) of a culture

### Material Culture

The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture

### Nonmaterial culture

ideas, knowledge and beliefs that influence people's behavior

### Popular Culture

widely shared beliefs, tastes, goals, and practices

### Survey Systems

pattern of land division used in an area

traditional building styles of different cultures, religions, and places

### Creole

A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated

### Dialect

A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation

### Isogloss

A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate

### Language

A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning

### Language Family

A collectio of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history

### Language Group

A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relativity recent past and display relativly few differences in grammer and vocabulary

### Language Subfamily

a smaller group of related languages within a language family

### Lingua Franca

A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages

### Multilingual

using or knowing more then one language

### Official Language

The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents

### Pidgin

A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammer and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages

### Toponym

The name given to a portion of earth's surface

### Chain migration

migration of people to a specific location becasue relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there

### Assimilation

The merging of cultural traits from previously distinct cultural groups not involving biological amalgamation

Adjusting a translation based on the cultural environment of the target language

### Ethnic Cleansing

Process in which more powerful group forcibly removes a less powerful one in orderto create an ethnically homogenous region

### Ethnic Conflict

type of conflict that occurs when different tribes are lumped together to form a country

### Ethnic Enclave

a small area occupies by a distinctive minority culture

### Ethnic Group

Belonging or deriving from the cultural racial, religious, or linguistic traditions of a people or country

### Ethnic Homeland

inhabited by an ethnic minority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region and often exercises some measure of political and social control over it

### Ethnicity

Identity with a group of people that share distict physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions

### Ethnocentrism

belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group

### Plural Society

a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions

### Animism

Belief that objects such as plants and stones or natural events liike thunderstorms and earthquakes have a discrete spirit and conscious life

### Buddhism

a religion represented by the many groups (especially in Asia) that profess various forms of the Buddhist doctrine and that venerate Buddha

### Christianity

a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior

### Confucianism

the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity

### Ethnic Religion

a religion identified with a particular ethnic group and largely exclusive to it

### Exclave

a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.

### Enclave

an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it

### Fundamentalism

Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion

### Hinduism

A body of religious and philosophical beliefs native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation

### Interfaith Boundaries

boundaries between the major religions

### Islam

the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran

### Judaism

the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud

### Monotheism

practice of believing in one god

### Polytheism

practice of believing in more then one god

### Mormonism

the doctrines and practices of the Mormon Church based on the Book of Mormon

### Reincarnation

a second or new birth

### Religious Conflict

this is the conflicts between religions. Israel-Palestine

### Sacred Space

Places sacred to certain groups

### Secularism

secular opinion or belief, especially a system following a political or social philosophy that rejects religious faith

### Sharia Law

the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed

### Sunni

a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad

### Shia

the Shia believe that leader is called an imam and this "caliph/imam" should be a direct descendant of Mohammed

### Taoism

A Chinese philosophy in which people live a simple life in harmony with nature.

### Theocracy

the belief in government by divine guidance

### Universalizing

A religion that attempts to appeal to all people not just those living in a particular location

### Annexation

Legally adding land area to a city in the united states

### Apartheid

Laws in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas

### Balkanize

the process of a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units

### Natural Boundary

When a physical feature such as a mountain or river determine a political boundary

### Physical Boundary

Political Boundaries that correspond with physical features such as mountains or rivers.

### Buffer State

a small neutral state between two rival powers

### Capital

wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value

### Centrifugal

An attitude that tends to create separation from centralization of authority rather than pulling them together.

### Centripetal

An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state rather than divide them

### City State

A soverign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland

### Colonialism

Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory

### Core

a small group of indispensable persons or things

### Periphery

the outside boundary or surface of something

### Decolonization

the action of changing from colonial to independent status

### Devolution

the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states

### Domino Theory

the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control

### European Union

an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members

### Frontier

A zone separating two states in which neither state excersicers political control

### Geopolitics

the study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state

### Heartland

the central region of a country or continent

### Landlocked

A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea

### Law of the Sea

Law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources.

### Manifest Destiny

a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)

### Microstate

A state that encompasses a very small land area

### Nation

a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity

### Nation State

A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality

### Reunification

the act of coming together again

### Satellite State

Country controlled by a more powerful nation

### Self-Determination

Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves

### Sovereignty

Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states

### State

An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs

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