Standards for proper behavior. Culture specific.
Common to a group of people.
May differ between cultures
Universal status norm:
Across all cultures, hierarchies develop based on social status, and our interactions with others change as a function of status; common in all cultures
A set of expectations of appropriate attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that one should hold as a function of being male or female.
A set of behavior expectations (norms) for males and females.
Gender role socialization:
Gender role socialization: The process of socializing children to behave appropriately based on their gender.
How are gender roles tied to sexuality?
when we see behavior that does not conform to gender, we make assumptions about that person's sexuality.
Traits that ensure the survival of species get passed on from generation to generation
study of the evolution of cognition and behavior using the principles of natural selection.
biological investment (energy, resources, time) required to produce offspring
mate selection, men vs. women
Males tend to focus on physical attributes (which suggest fertility), whereas females focus on a male's likelihood to protect and provide after conception.
We associate a career field with a particular gender. Men are in more dominant jobs and women are in more nurturing job.
evolution of gender roles
Female gender role has expanded to a greater degree than the male gender role; it is socially acceptable for women to take traditionally male roles, but the reverse has not happened to the same degree.
engaging in behaviors that protect the existence of gender roles.
just because something is common/typical doesn't mean that it is good or better
1. Gender roles are not identical in every culture/society
2.Gender roles change over a relatively short period of time.
1.Gender roles exit in virtually every known society.
2. Gender roles contain common elements across societies. Females: child rearing (reproductivity); Males: production (productivity)
Bem's Gender Role Theory:
the interaction between biological and nature forces are reinforced by society.
We are more alike than different.
highlights the kindship that results from our shared human nature.
highlights human diversity--the behaviors and ideas that define a group and that are transmitted across generations.