AICE European History Vocab-Absolutism

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Absolutism

sovereignty embodied in person of ruler; Hobbes-biggest advocate

Totalitarianism

20th century phenomenon that seeks to direct all facets of a state's culture in the state's interest

Cardinal Richelieu

became President of the Council of Ministers and the first minister of French crown under Louis XIII in 1624. Died in 1642.

Louis XIII

(1610-1643) influenced by Richelieu to exult French monarchy as embodiment of French state. Established absolute rule.

Fronde

1648-53. Brutal civil wars that struck France during the reign of Louis XIII. Caused political and economic devastation.

Jules Mazarin

Became a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in French government. Died in 1661

"Sun King"

Louis XIV had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of absolutist development through palace at Versailles and his policies.

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

an advisor to Louis XIV who proved himself a financial genius who managed the entire royal administration. Proposed mercantilism as best policy for economy.

Mercantilism

philosophy that a state's strength depends upon it's wealth

Leviathan

Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.

John Locke

Believed people were born like blank slates and the environment shapes development, (tabula rasa). Wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and Second Treatise of Government.

Bill of Rights

1689, no law can be suspended by the king; no taxes raised; no army maintained except by parliamentary consent. Established after The Glorious Revolution.

War of Austrian Succession

(1740-1748) Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.

Charles VI

(r. 1711-40) Obsessed with keeping the Habsburg empire together, issued the Pragmatic Sanction. No male heir so the empire passed to Maria Theresa.

Maria Theresa

1740-1780 Won War of Austrian Succession after defeating Frederick II of Prussia, but losing Silesia.

Romanovs

Russian dynasty, started with Michael Romanov after the Time of Troubles and lasted until the revolution of 1917 and the execution of Nicholas II.

Boyars

Land owning aristocracy in early Russia.

Voltaire

French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.

Deism

God built the universe and let it run. Clockmaker theory.

The Spirit of Laws

(1748) Montesquieu, about separation of powers.

Capitalism

Economic theory of maintaining balance of exports and imports. The opposite of socialism and communism.

Montesquieu

French philosopher. Wrote "The Spirit of Laws". Said "Power checks power". Separation of powers. Form of government varies according to climate.

Candide

Voltaire, satirizing society and organized religion in Europe.

The Social Contract

Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modeled after the Greek polis.

Rococo

Art style that focuses on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentmental portraits.

Essay Concerning Human Understanding

(1690) Written by Locke, tabula rasa theory.

Second Treatise of Government

(1690) Written by Locke, Government created to protect life, liberty, and property.

Humanitarianism

Promoting human welfare and social reform.

Enlightened despot

Enlightened ruler. Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great.

Royal Society of London

Established by Charles II, purpose to help the sciences.

Magyars

Land-owning aristocracy in Hungary.

Muscovy

A former principality in west-central Russia. Centered on Moscow, founded c. 1280 and existed as a seperate entity until the 16th century, when it was united with another principality to form the nucleus of the early Russian empire. Name was then used for the expanded territory.

Dvorianie

Established by Peter the Great, they received land and control of the peasants.

Frederick William the Great Elector

First man who made modern Prussia.

Hohenzollern

German royal family who ruled Brandenburg from 1415 and later extended their control to Prussia (1525). Under Frederick I (ruled 1701-1713) the family's possessions were unified as the kingdom of Prussia.

Pragmatic Sanction

Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne.

Junkers

Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism.

New Model Army

Created by Cromwell

Thomas Hobbes

Leading secular exponent of absolutism and unlimited sovereignty of the state. Absolutism produced civil peace and rule of law. Tyranny is better than chaos. Claimed life was, "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." Wrote Leviathan.

The Restoration

(1660) Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were restored, established Anglican church, courts of law and local government.

Oliver Cromwell

As lord protector of England he used his army to control the government and constituted a military dictatorship.

William Laud

Archbishop of Canterbury, tried to impose elaborate ritual and rich ceremonies on all churches. Insisted on complete uniformity of the church and enforced it through the Court of High Commission.

Petition of Rights

(1628) Limited the power of Charles I of England. a) could not declare martial law; b) could not collect taxes; c) could not imprison people without cause; d) soldiers could not be housed without consent.

Constitutionalism

Limitation of government by law, developed in times of absolutism.

Peace of Utrecht

1713, ended Louis XIV's attempts to gain military power and land. Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession.

William of Orange

Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.

Nicholas Poussin

French classical painter who painted the Rape of the Sabine Women, known as the greatest French painter of the 17th century.

"French Classicism"

(1643-1715) Art, literature, and advancements of the age of Louis XIV.

Sovereignty

Possessing a monopoly over the instruments of justice.

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