AP US History Vocabulary

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Ch 8 Vocabulary

Second Continental Congress

met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775 and this time the full slate of 13 colonies was represented; the conservative element in congress was still strong despite the shooting in Massachusetts; there was still no well defined sentiment for independence merely a desire to continue fighting in the hope that the king and parliament would consent to a redress of grievances; congress hopefully drafted new appeals to the british people and king-appeals that were spurned; anticipating a possible reject the delegates also adopted measures to raise money and to create an army and a navy;, the Continental Congress that convened in May 1775, approved the Declaration of Independence, and served as the only agency of national government during the Revolutionary War; "these united colonies are and of right ought to be free and independent states" was a formal declaration of independence by Richard Henry Lee on June 7, 1776

Privateers

More numerous and damaging than ships of the regular American navy were swift privateers; these craft were privately owned armed ships-legalized pirates in a sense-specifically authorized by Congress to prey on enemy shipping; Altogether over a thousand American privateers, responding to the call of patriotism and profit, sallied forth with about 70,000 men, "sailors of fortune"; they captured some 600 British prizes while British warships captured about as many American merchantmen and privateers; it had the unfortunate effect of diverting manpower from the main war effort and involving Americans including Benedict Arnold; the privateers brought in urgently needed gold, harassed the enemy, and raised american morale by providing victories at a time when victories were few; british shipping was so badly riddled by privateers and by the regular american navy that insurance rates skyrocketed; merchant ships compelled to sail in convoy and british shippers and manufacturers brought increasing pressure on parliament to end the war on honorable terms;

George Washington

most important single action of the congress was to select Washington one of its members already in an officer's uniform, to head the hastily improvised army besieging Boston; tall powerfully built, dignified Virginian planter, then 43 had never risen above the rank of a colonel in the militia; his largest command had numbered only 1,200 men and that had been some 20 yrs earlier; falling short of true military genius, he would actually lose more battles than he won; he insisted on serving w/out pay though he kept a careful expense account amounting to more than $100,000

Bunker Hill

In June 1775 the colonists seized a hill now known as Bunker Hill, actually Breed's Hill, from which they menaced the enemy in Boston; the British instead of cutting off the retreat of their foes by flanking them, blundered bloodily when they launched a frontal attack w/ 3,000 men; americans, numbering 1,500 and strongly entrenched mowed down the advancing redcoats w/ slaughter; but colonist's scanty store of gunpowder finally gave out, and they were forced to abandon the hill in disorder; in july 1775 the continental congress adopted the olive branch petition professing american loyalty to the crown and begging the king to prevent further hostilities; but following Bunker hill , King George III slammed the door on all hope of reconciliation; in august 1775 he formally proclaimed the colonies in rebellion

Valley Forge

The king's followers were well entrenched in aristocratic New York City and Charleston, and also in Quaker Pennsylvania and New Jersey, where General Washington felt that he was fighting in "the enemy's country"; while his men were starving at Valley Forge nearby Pennsylvania farmers were selling their produce to the British for the king's gold; ...... General Washington keeping a wary eye on the British in New York , hastily transferred his army to the vicinity of Philadelphia; there late in 1777 he was defeated in 2 battles at Brandywine Creek and Germantown; Washington finally retired to winter quarters at Valley Forge, a strong hilly position some 20 miles northwest of Philadelphia; there his frostbitten and hungry men were short of about everything except misery; this rabble was nevertheless whipped into a pro. army by the recently arrived Prussian drillmaster, the profane but patient Baron von Steuben

Whigs

Loyalists were insultingly called Tories after the dominant political factions in Britain whereas Patriots were calle Whigs after the opposition factions in Britain; loyalists numbering probably abut 16% of the american people remained true to the king; families often split like Benjamin Franklin and his illegitimate son William Franklin, the last royal governor of New Jersey; many people of education and wealth of culture and caution remained loyal; loyalists were also more numerous among the older generation; young people made up the patriots like Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry; loyalists included the king's officers and other beneficiaries of the crown; loyalists also came from the anglican clergy who had been taught submission to the king; loyalist most numerous where anglican church was strongest, except virginia, they also were from the aristocratic new york and Charleston and Quaker Penn. and new jersey; loyalists least numerous in new england where self-government was strong and mercantilism was weak; rebels most numerous were presbyterianism and congregationalism were, in new england;

Common Sense

in 1776 came the publication of Common sense one of the most influential phamplets ever written; its author was the radical Thomas Paine, once an impoverished corset-maker's apprentice who had come over from Britain a yr ealier; became a whirlwind best seller and within a few months reached the astonishing total of 120,000 copies; said nowhere in the physical universe did the smaller heavenly body control the larger one; so why would the tiny island of Britain control the vast continent of america?; he called the king "the royal brute of great britain"; it called not simply for independence but for the creation of a new kind of political society, a republic where power flowed from the people themselves not from a corrupt and despotic monarch; in language laced w/ biblical imagery familiar to common folk he argued that all government officials, governors, senators, and judges not just representatives in a house of commons, should derive their authority from popular consent; these ideas were since greece;

Patrick Henry

patriot; young people make revolutions and from the outset energetic,purposeful, and militant young people surged forwardfigures like the sleeplessly scheming Samuel Adams and the impassionated Patrick Henry; His flaming outcry before the Virginia assembly "Give me liberty or give me death" still quickens patriotic pulses

Tories

Loyalists were insultingly called Tories after the dominant political factions in Britain whereas Patriots were calle Whigs after the opposition factions in Britain; loyalists numbering probably abut 16% of the american people remained true to the king; families often split like Benjamin Franklin and his illegitimate son William Franklin, the last royal governor of New Jersey; many people of education and wealth of culture and caution remained loyal; loyalists were also more numerous among the older generation; young people made up the patriots like Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry; loyalists included the king's officers and other beneficiaries of the crown; loyalists also came from the anglican clergy who had been taught submission to the king; loyalist most numerous where anglican church was strongest, except virginia, they also were from the aristocratic new york and Charleston and Quaker Penn. and new jersey; loyalists least numerous in new england where self-government was strong and mercantilism was weak; rebels most numerous were presbyterianism and congregationalism were, in new england;

Yorktown

the British general Cornwallis was blundering into a trap; after futile operations in Virginia, he had fallen back to Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown to await seaborne supplies and reinforcements; he assumed britain would continue to control the sea; but the few weeks happened to be one of the brief periods during the war when British naval superiority slipped away; french were now prepared to cooperate; Admiral de Grasse operating w/ a great fleet in the West Indies advised the Americans that he was free to join w/ them in an assault on Cornwallis at Yorktown; quick to seize this opportunity, General washington made a march of more than 300 miles to the Chesapeake from the NEw york area; accompanied by Rochambeau's french army, washington beset the British by land while de Grasse blockaded them by sea after beating off the British fleet; concerned, cornwallis surrendered his entire force of 7,000 men on Oct. 19, 1781; french provided all the sea power, and about half of the regular troops in the besieging army of some 16,000

Treaty of Paris 1783

While there have been many Treaties of Paris throughout history. The most important in American History is the treaty signed in September 1783 and ratified by Congress in January 1784, which ended the Revolutionary War and granted the United States its independence. It further granted the U.S. all land east of the Mississippi River. While generally accepted, the Treaty of Paris opened the door to future legislative and economic disputes.;, 1. British would recognize the existence of the US as an independent nation; 2. The Mississippi River would be the western boundary of US; 3. Americans would have fishing rights off Canadian coast; 4. American would pay debts owed to British merchants and honor Loyalist Claims for property taken during the war;

Declaration of Independence

mention Lee; , July 4, 1776. This document stated that because the English king had broken the social contract, the colonists had the right to rebel. It includes a list of the king's abuses as well as a description of natural rights. With this document, Enlightenment ideas were put into practice.;, Formally approved by the Congress on July 4, 1776. This "shout heard round the world" has been a source of inspiration to countless revolutionary movements against arbitrary authority. The document sharply separated Loyalists from Patriots and helped to start the American Revolution by allowing England to hear of the colonists disagreements with British authority.;, A statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies then at war with Great Britain were now independent states, and thus no longer a part of the British Empire. Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration is a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War.

John Jay

one of the three American negotiators, along with Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, who was to make no separate peace and to consult with their French allies at all times; he instinctively became suspicious of France's ability to satisfy both America and Spain; he therefore sercretly bargained with London to ensure America's gain

Thomas Jefferson

best educated men of his time. Heir to many slaves. he was a lawyer, statesman, scientist, landscape artist, and architect. He became a leading voice of the revolution. Served on the continental congress, and principal author of the Declaration of Independence. governor of Virginia, minister to France, Secretary of State, VP, and 3rd president of the US.

Saratoga

1777 American Revolution battle fought in northern New York. British planned to end the American Revolution by splitting the colonies along the Hudson River, but they failed to mobilize properly. British ended up surrendering, allowing for the first great American victory. Demonstrated that the British could more easily hold the cities, but that they would have trouble with subduing the countrysides. Considered a turning point, as French aid began after this battle.;, The battle of Saratoga happened in June 1777. After General Burgoyne's forces captured Fort Ticonderoga, American forces blocked paths of troops and removed crops and cattle to deprive the soldiers from food. Burgoyne eventually retreated to Saratoga only to be surrounded by an American army nearly three times the size of his own, he then surrendered. Over 5,000 British soldiers were taken prisoner. It was an unexpected turning point in the war. It not only dramatically improved American morale, but also convinced the French to commit troops to American cause.

Lexington and Concord

first shots fired in the Revolutionary War on April 19, 1775, near Boston. Approximately 100 minutemen and 250 British soldiers were killed. Royal governor of MA- General Thomas Gage decided to capture and arrest leaders of the Provincial Congress and seize the military's supply depot at Concord. Revere warned the minute men. Lexington- the minute men were easily defeated. At Concord although the British succeeding in seizing some weapons most were moved before they arrived and the minute men continued to attack the British while they were marching back to Charleston peninsula. The British suffered about 3 times the casualties as the Americans. The Americans earned much respect.;, "Shots heard round the world." General Thomas Gage sent 1,000 troops to seize the ammunition in Lexington and Concord. Dawes and Revere heard that the British were coming and warned the villages and farms. When the British troops arrived in Lexington, several dozen minutemen were waiting in the town common. Shots were fired and eight minutemen were killed. The British troops advanced onto Concord and discovered that the Americans had moved the powder supply. Using guerilla warfare, the colonists harmed the British.

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