Intro to Pharmacology - Ch. 4

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36 terms

Aerobic

needing oxygen to survive

Aminoglycoside

a class of antibiotics that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal subunits; commonly used to treat serious infections

Anaerobic

capable of surviving in the absence of oxygen

Antibiotic

a chemical substance with the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria by interfering with bacteria life processes

Antiseptic

a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms on the outside of the body

Arrhythmia

variation in hearbeat, irregular heartbeat

Bacteria

small, single-celled microorganisms that exist in three main forms: spherical, rod shaped, and spiral

Bactericidal Agent

a drug that kills bacteria

Bacteriostatic Agent

a drug that inhibits the growth or multiplication of bacteria

Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic

an antibiotic that is effective against multiple organisms

Cephalosporin

a class of antibiotics with a mechanism of action similar to that of penicillins, but with a different antibacterial spectrum, resistance to beta-lactamase, and pharmacokinetics; divided into first-, second-, third-, and fourth-generation agents

Chelation

combination of an organic molecule such as a drug with a metal in complexes in which the metal ion is part of a ring

Community-Acquired

contracted out of the hospital

Cyclic Lipopeptide

a new class of antibiotics that bind to bacterial membranes and cause the cell membrane to depolarize, thus leading to an inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis

Disinfectant

an agent that frees inanimate objects from infection

Empirical Treatment

treatment begun before a definite diagnosis can be obtained

Gram Staining

a staining technique that divides bacteria into gram-positive (purple) or gram-negative (red) based on the properties of their cell walls

Hypotension

low blood pressure

Infection

a condition in which bacteria grow in body tissues and cause tissue damage to the host either by their presence or by toxins they produce

Ketolide

a class of antibiotics that block protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal subunits and may also inhibit the formation of new ribosomes; used primarily to treat bacterial infections in the lungs and sinuses

Macrolide

a class of bacteriostatic antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis by combining with ribosomes; used primarily to treat pulmonary infections caused by Legionella and gram-positive organisms

Nephrotoxicity

ability to damage the kidneys

Nosocomial

acquired by patients in the hospital

NS

normal saline

Opthalmic

to be used in the eye

Otic

to be used in the ear

Ototoxicity

ability to damage the organs of hearing

Penicillin

a class of antibiotics obtained from Penicillium chrysogenum; kill bacteria by preventing them from forming a rigid cell wall, thereby allowing an excessive amount of water to enter through osmosis and cause lysis of the bacterium cell

pH

a measurement of acidity or alkalinity; 7 is neutral; above 7 is alkaline; below 7 is acidic

Quinolone

a class of antibiotics with rapid bactericidal action against most gram-negative and many gram-positive bacteria; work by causing DNA breakage and cell death; cross the blood-brain barrier

Sepsis

a systemic inflammatory response to infection resulting from blood-borne infections

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

a sometimes fatal form of erythema multiforme (an allergic reaction marked by red blotches on the skin)

Streptogramin

one of a class of antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis within the bacterial ribosomes; useful in the treatment of vancomycin- and methicillin-resistant infections (VRE and MRSA)

Sulfonamides

sulfa drugs; a class of bacteriostatic antibiotics that work by blocking a specific step in the biosynthetic pathway or folic acid in bacteria

Superinfection

a new infection complicating the course of therapy of an existing infection

Tetracyclines

a class of broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotics that are produced by soil organisms and inhibit protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosomes

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