rad 4

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A radiograph was made, non-grid, using 400 mA, 0.05 second exposure, and 75 kV at 40'' SID using a 400 speed system. Which of the following exposure times would be required to maintain radiographic density at a 36-inch SID using the 500-mA station, and with an increase to 87 kVp?
A. 0.04 second
B. 0.08 second
C. 0.016 second
D. 0.032 second

0.016 second

Indirect modes of disease transmission include
1. airborne.
2. fomite.
3. vector.

1, 2, and 3

Stochastic effects of radiation include
A. blood changes.
B. genetic alterations.
C. cataractogenesis.
D.reduced fertility

genetic alterations

The instrument that is frequently used in quality control programs to measure varying degrees of x-ray exposure is the
A. aluminum step wedge.
B. spinning top.
C. densitometer.
D. sensitometer


Which of the following skull positions will demonstrate the cranial base, sphenoidal sinuses, atlas, and odontoid process?
A. AP axial
B. Lateral
C. Parietoacanthial
D. Submentovertical (SMV)

Submentovertical (SMV)

Which of the following conditions is often the result of ureteral obstruction or stricture?
A. Pyelonephrosis
B. Nephroptosis
C. Hydronephrosis
D. Cystourethriti


Which of the following ionizing radiations is described as having an RBE of 1.0?
A. 10 MeV protons
B. 5 MeV alpha particles
C. Diagnostic x-rays
D. Fast neutrons

Diagnostic x-rays

Use your mouse to drag the following bony parts into order (A-D) from most proximal to most distal
A. Linea aspera
B. Intertrochanteric crest
C. Popliteal surface
D. Fovea capitis


Early symptoms of acute radiation syndrome include
1. leukopenia.
2. nausea and vomiting.
3. Cataracts.


Somatic effects resulting from radiation exposure can
1. have possible consequences on the exposed individual.
2. have possible consequences on future generations.
3. cause temporary infertility.


A dose of 25 rad to the fetus during the fourth or fifth week of pregnancy is more likely to cause which of the following:
A. Spontaneous abortion
B. skeletal anomalies
C. neurologic anomalies
D. organogenesis

skeletal anomalies

As health care professionals aspire to design their actions to always benefit their patients, to only bring about good for their patients, they are aspiring to what moral principle?
A. Beneficence
B. Nonmaleficence
C. Autonomy
D. Veracity


If 32 mAs and 50-speed screens were used to produce a particular radiographic density, what new mAs value would be required to produce the same density if the screen speed was changed to 400?
A. 4
B. 40
C. 175
D. 256

A. 4

With which of the following is zonography associated?
1. Thick tomographic cuts
2. Long exposure amplitude
3. Less blurring than with pluridirectional tomography because a narrow exposure angle is used


The first carpometacarpal joint is formed by the articulation of the base of the first metacarpal and the
A. distal radius.
B. distal ulna.
C. scaphoid.
D. trapezium


What quantity of radiation exposure to the reproductive organs is required to cause temporary infertility?
A. 100 rad
B. 200 rad
C. 300 rad
D. 400 rad

200 rad

According to the NCRP, the annual occupational whole-body dose equivalent limit is
A. 1 mSv.
B. 50 mSv.
C. 150 mSv.
D. 500 mSv

50 mSv.

All the following can be associated with the elbow joint except
A. the capitulum.
B. the trochlea.
C. the tubercles.
D. the epicondyles

the tubercles

To obtain an AP projection of the right ilium, the patient's
A. left side is elevated 40°.
B. right side is elevated 40°.
C. left side is elevated 15°.
D. right side is elevated 15

left side is elevated 40°

If a radiographer continues a lumbar spine examination after the patient states that he or she does not want to finish the examination, that radiographer can be found guilty of
A. assault.
B. battery.
C. false imprisonment.
D. defamation.

C. false imprisonment
False imprisonment may be considered if a patient is ignored after stating that he or she no longer wishes to continue with the procedure or if restraining devices are used improperly or used without a physician's order.

Which of the following is (are) essential to high-quality mammographic examinations?
1. Small focal spot x-ray tube
2. Short-scale contrast
3. Use of a compression device


The batteries in battery-operated mobile x-ray units provide power to
1. the x-ray tube.
2. machine locomotion.
3. the braking mechanism.


Which of the following cells are the most radiosensitive?
A. Myelocytes
B. Erythroblasts
C. Megakaryocytes
D. Myocytes

B. Erythroblasts
There are several types of stem cells in bone marrow, they differ in degree of radiosensitivity. red blood cells, or erythroblasts, are the most radiosensitive. White blood cells, or myelocytes, follow. Platelet cells, or megakaryocytes, are least radiosensitive. Myocytes are mature muscle cells and are fairly radioresistant

Which of the following is used to obtain a lateral projection of the upper humerus on patients who are unable to abduct their arm?
A. Bicipital groove projection
B. Superoinferior lateral
C. inferosuperior axial
D. Transthoracic lateral

Transthoracic lateral

Fluorescent light is collected from the image intensifier output phosphor and converted to an electronic video signal by the
1. TV camera tube.
2. CCD.
3. coaxial cable.


Which of the following may be used to evaluate the glenohumeral joint?
1. Scapular Y projection
2. Inferosuperior axial
3. Transthoracic lateral


Which of the following procedures requires that contrast medium be injected into the ureters?
A. Cystogram
B. Urethrogram
C. Retrograde pyelogram
D. Cystourethrogram

Retrograde pyelogram

A spinning top device can be used to evaluate
1. timer accuracy.
2. rectifier failure.
3. the effect of kVp on contrast.


The image intensifier's input phosphor is generally composed of
A. cesium iodide.
B. zinc cadmium sulfide.
C. gadolinium oxysulfide.
D. calcium tungstate

cesium iodide.

A thermoluminescent dosimetry system would use which of the following crystals?
A. Silver bromide
B. Sodium sulfite
C. Lithium fluoride
D. Aluminum oxide

Lithium fluoride

Recorded detail is directly related to
1. source-image distance (SID).
2. tube current.
3. focal spot size.

1. source-image distance (SID)

Which of the following positions would best demonstrate the proximal tibiofibular articulation?
B. 90° mediolateral
C. 45° internal rotation
D. 45° external rotation

45° internal rotation

To maintain image clarity, the path of electron flow from photocathode to output phosphor is controlled by
A. the accelerating anode.
B. electrostatic lenses.
C. the vacuum glass envelope.
D. the input phosphor.

electrostatic lenses

Which of the following are considered especially radiosensitive tissues?
1. Blood-forming organs
2. Reproductive organs
3. Lymphocytes


Which of the following is considered the unit of exposure in air?
A. Roentgen (C/kg)
B. Rad (Gy)
C. Rem (Sv)

Roentgen (C/kg)

The stomach of an asthenic patient is most likely to be located
A. high, transverse, and lateral.
B. low, transverse, and lateral.
C. high, vertical, and toward the midline.
D. low, vertical, and toward the midline

low, vertical, and toward the midline

All of the following positions are likely to be employed for both single-contrast and double-contrast examinations of the large bowel except
A. lateral rectum.
B. AP axial rectosigmoid.
C. right and left lateral decubitus abdomen.
D. RAO and LAO abdomen.

right and left lateral decubitus abdomen

Classify the following tissues in order of increasing radiosensitivity.
1. Liver cells
2. Intestinal crypt cells
3. Muscle cells


The largest amount of diagnostic x-ray absorption will occur in which of the following tissues?
A. Lung
B. Adipose
C. Muscle
D. Bone


The input phosphor of the image intensifier tube functions to convert
A. kinetic energy to light.
B. x-rays to light.
C. electrons to light.
D. fluorescent light to electrons

x-rays to light.

The short, thick processes that project posteriorly from the vertebral body are the
A. transverse processes.
B. vertebral arches.
C. laminae.
D. pedicles


Which of the following types of adult tissues is (are) relatively insensitive to radiation exposure?
1. Muscle tissue
2. Nerve tissue
3. Epithelial tissue


A film emerging from the automatic processor exhibits excessive density. This may be attributable to which of the following?
1. Developer temperature too high
2. Chemical fog
3. Underreplenishment


All of the following procedures demonstrate renal function, except
B. descending urography.
C. retrograde urography.
D. infusion nephrotomography

retrograde urography.

All the following x-ray circuit devices are located between the incoming power supply and the primary coil of the high-voltage transformer except
A. the circuit breaker.
B. the kilovoltage selector.
C. the rectifiers.
D. the autotransformer

the rectifiers

Which of the following must be included in the patient's medical record or chart?
1. Diagnostic and therapeutic orders
2. Medical history
3. Informed consent


X-ray film emulsion is most sensitive to safelight fog
A. before exposure and development.
B.after exposure.
C. during development.
D. at low humidity

after exposure.

What is the approximate ESE for the average AP cervical spine radiograph?
A. 40 rad
B. 40 mrad
C. 80 rad
D. 80 mrad

80 mrad

Of the following groups of exposure factors, which will produce the shortest scale of radiographic contrast?
A. 500 mA, 0.040 second, 70 kVp
B. 100 mA, 0.100 second, 80 kVp
C. 200 mA, 0.025 second, 92 kVp
D. 700 mA, 0.014 second, 80 kVp

500 mA, 0.040 second, 70 kVp

ccording to the line focus principle, an anode with a small angle provides
1. improved recorded detail.
2. improved heat capacity.
3. less heel effect.


Which of the following bones participate in the formation of the acetabulum?
1. Ilium
2. Ischium
3. Pubis


The manubrial notch is at approximately the same level as the
A. fifth thoracic vertebra.
B. T2-3 interspace.
C. T4-5 interspace.
D. costal margin.

T2-3 interspace

A star pattern is used to measure
1. focal spot resolution.
2. intensifying-screen resolution.
3. SID resolution.

1. focal spot resolution

Which of the following contribute(s) to inherent filtration?
1. X-ray tube glass envelope
2. X-ray tube port window
3. Aluminum between the tube housing and the collimator

1 and 2 only

AP stress studies of the ankle may be performed
1. to demo fractures of distal tibia and fibula.
2. following inversion or eversion injuries.
3. to demonstrate a ligament tear.


Any wall that the useful x-ray beam can be directed toward is called a
A. secondary barrier.
B. primary barrier.
C. leakage barrier.
D. scattered barrier.

B. primary barrier

SID affects recorded detail in which of the following ways?
A. Recorded detail is directly related to SID.
B. Recorded detail is inversely related to SID.
C. SID increases, recorded detail decreases.
D. SID is not a detail factor.

Recorded detail is directly related to SID.

Use of a portion of the input phosphor during fluoroscopy, rather than the entire input phosphor, will result in
1. a larger field of view (FOV).
2. a magnified image.
3. improved spatial resolution.


Which of the following affect(s) both the quantity and quality of the primary beam?
1. Half-value layer (HVL)
2. kVp
3. mA

1. Half-value layer (HVL)
2. kVp

Which of the following is recommended to better demonstrate the tarsometatarsal joints in the dorsoplantar projection of the foot?
A. Invert the foot
B. Evert the foot
C. Angle the central ray 10° posteriorly
D. Angle the central ray 10° anteriorly

Angle the central ray 10° posteriorly

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