One of a class of pigments (such as fucoxanthin, phycobilin, and xanthophyll) that are present in various photosynthetic plants and that assist in the absorption of light and the transfer of its energy to chlorophyll; also called masking pigment.
Collective term for nonvascular plants possessing chlorophyll and capable of photosynthesis. (Singular, alga.)
A flowering vascular plant that reproduces by means of a seed-bearing fruit. Examples are sea grasses and mangroves.
A naked diatom cell without valves; often a dormant stage in the life cycle following sexual reproduction.
Biologically produced light.
Algal equivalent of a vascular plant's leaf; also called a frond.
The basic organizational unit of life on this planet.
A very small planktonic alga carrying discs of calcium carbonate, which contributes to biogenous sediments.
The depth in the water column at which the production of carbohydrates and oxygen by photosynthesis exactly equals the consumption of carbohydrates and oxygen by respiration. The break-even point for autotrophs. Generally a function of light level.
A small planktonic arthropod, a major marine primary consumer.
Earth's most abundant, successful, and efficient single-celled phytoplankton. Diatoms possess two interlocking valves made primarily of silica. The valves contribute to biogenous sediments.
One of a class of microscopic single-celled flagellates, not all of which are autotrophic. The outer covering is often of stiff cellulose. Planktonic dinoflagellates are responsible for "red tides."
A whiplike structure used by some small organisms and gametes to move through the environment. (Plural, flagella.)
One of a group of planktonic amoeba-like animals with a calcareous shell, which contributes to biogenous sediments.
The siliceous external cell wall of a diatom consisting of two interlocking valves fitted together like the halves of a box.
A brown or tan accessory pigment found in many species of brown algae and some species of diatoms.
Time required for one-half of all the unstable radioactive nuclei in a sample to decay.
A complex branching structure that anchors many kinds of multicellular algae to the substrate.
Permanent members of the plankton community. Examples are diatoms and copepods. Compare meroplankton.
Informal name for any species of large phaeophyte.
Euphausia superba, a thumb-size crustacean common in Antarctic waters.
Animal plankters larger than 1 to 2 centimeters (1/2 to 1 inch). An example is the jellyfish.
A large flowering shrub or tree that grows in dense thickets or forests along muddy or silty tropical coasts.
The planktonic phase of the life cycle of organisms that spend only part of their life drifting in the plankton.
Consisting of more than one cell.
Algae with bodies consisting of more than one cell. Examples are kelp and Ulva.
A compound or ion that is needed by autotrophs for primary productivity and that changes in concentration with biological activity.
Describing photosynthetic autotrophs without vessels for the transport of fluid. Examples are algae.
oxygen minimum zone
A zone in which oxygen is depleted by animals and not replaced by phytoplankton.
Brown multicellular algae, including kelps.
A reddish accessory pigment found in red algae.
Plantlike, usually single-celled members of the plankton community.
Extremely small members of the plankton community, typically 0.2 to 2 micrometers (4 to 40 millionths of an inch) across.
Informal name for a member of the plankton community.
Drifting or weakly swimming organisms suspended in water. Their horizontal position is to a large extent dependent on the mass flow of water rather than on their own swimming efforts.
A sudden increase in the number of phytoplankton cells in a volume of water.
Conical net of fine nylon or Dacron fabric used to collect plankton.
The kingdom of single-celled nucleated organisms to which protozoa, diatoms, and dinoflagellates belong; also called Protoctista.
Red, multicellular algae.
Any of several marine angiosperms. Examples are Zostera (eelgrass) and Phyllospadix (surfgrass). Sea grasses are not seaweeds.
A tiny, single-celled phytoplankter with a siliceous skeleton.
Multicellular algal equivalent of a vascular plant's stem.
The mid-latitude area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle and between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle.
The body of an alga or other simple plant.
Extremely small plankton, smaller than nanoplankton.
Consisting of a single cell.
Algae with bodies consisting of a single cell. Examples are diatoms and dinoflagellates.
In diatoms, each half of the protective silica-rich outer portion of the cell. The complete outer covering is called the frustule.
Plant having vessels for transport of fluid through leaves, stems, and roots. Examples are sea grasses, mangroves, and maple trees.
A yellow or brown accessory pigment that gives some marine autotrophs a yellow or tan appearance.
Animal members of the plankton community.