Chapter 1: The Main Themes of Microbiology

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The major types of microorganisms include:

Protozoa
Plants
Animals
Fungi
Algae
Viruses
Bacteria

Protozoa, Fungi, Algae, Viruses, Bacteria

_____ can be seen with the naked eye

Microorganisms

_____ are small, single-celled prokaryotic organisms

Bacteria

_____ are not cellular (acellular) and are composed of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat

Virus

Which term best describes a disease caused by a microorganism?

Communicable
Infectious
Nosocomial

Infectious

Which microbe(s) have a true nucleus?

Virus
Archaea
Protists
Prion
Yeast

Protists, Yeast

Thinking of the two major cell types in the world: a(n) _____ cell contains organelles, such as the Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria. However, these organelles are not found in _____ prokaryotic cells.

eukaryotic, prokaryotic

A(n) _____ is a tentative explanation of an observation.

hypothesis

Organisms that are only visible with the aid of a microscope are:

macroscopic
microscopic

microscopic

When organisms are visible to the naked eye, they are called _____.

macroscopic

Which event helped establish the science of microbiology?

The discovery of DNA
The organization of life into taxonomic herarchies
The development of the microscope

The development of the microscope

Put these levels of classification in order from most general to most specific.

Genus, Species, Kingdom

Kingdom, Genus, Species

Taxonomy involves _____ and _____ living things.

searching for
controlling
classifying
naming

classifying, naming

The germ theory of disease stated that:

microorganisms could cause infection and disease
all human diseases are caused by infectious agents
handwashing is the best means to prevent disease
life only comes from existing life

microorganisms could cause infection and disease

Koch's four _____ are a series of proofs that establish whether an organism is pathogenic and which disease it causes.

postulates

All cells contain a cell _____.

membrane

_____ is the specific study of microscopic organisms, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.

Microbiology
Biology
Microscopy

Microbiology

Which of the following is NOT a term used to describe microscopic organisms?

Microorganisms
Vertebrates
Microbes

Vertebrates

Which of the following describe fungi?

heterotrophic
eukaryotic
unicellular or multicellular
autotrophic
always multicellular
prokaryotic

heterotrophic
eukaryotic
unicellular or multicellular

In the levels of classification, the level right above species is the _____.

genus

Which is correct regarding the capitalization of an organism's name?

staphylococcus aureus
staphylococcus Aureus
Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus Aureus

Staphylococcus aureus

For the organism Escherichia coli, Escherichia represents the _____ level of classification.

genus

All _____ are microorganisms, but not all _____ are microorganisms.

eukaryotes; prokaryotes
prokaryotes; eukaryotes

prokaryotes; eukaryotes

Small, membrane-bound components found inside of an eukaryotic cell, such as mitochondria and lysosomes, are referred to as:

nuclei
organs
systems
organelles

organelles

Which of the following is true about prokaryotic microorganisms?

They are generally smaller than eukaryotic cells.
They contain a nucleus.
They lack cellular organelles.
They are generally larger than eukaryotic cells.

They are generally smaller than eukaryotic cells.
They lack cellular organelles.

Which of the following microorganisms are made up of eukaryotic cells?

Archaea
Protozoans
Bacteria
Fungi
Helminths
Viruses

Protozoans
Fungi
Helminths

An environment or material that is completely free of all life forms (including spores) and virus particles is referred to as _____.

sterile

Who first promoted the use of disinfecting agents in the operating room during surgery?

Van Leeuwenhoek
Lister
Koch
Semmelweis

Lister

List these levels in the hierarchy of classification from most general to least general.

Kingdom
Class
Genus
Species
Family

Kingdom
Class
Family
Genus
Species

Microorganisms account for about 50% of the earth's _____, which is the conversion of light energy from the sun into organic molecules.

photosynthesis

Which process is the breakdown of dead matter and wastes into simple compounds that can be directed back into the natural cycle of living things?

Respiration
Decomposition
Photosynthesis

Decomposition

Which of the following describe fungi?

eukaryotic
autotrophic
prokaryotic
unicellular or multicellular
always multicellular
heterotrophic

eukaryotic
unicellular or multicellular
heterotrophic

Microorganisms are _____, meaning they are found in all natural habitats as well as in most artificial habitats created by humans.

ubiquitious

_____ organisms can be visualized by the naked eye.

Microscopic
All
Prokaryotic
Macroscopic

Macroscopic

Put these in order by size from largest to smallest.

Bacteria
Colonial alga
Viruses
Reproductive structures of mold

Reproductive structures of mold
Colonial alga
Bacteria
Viruses

Escherichia coli may be abbreviated to _____.

E. coli

For the organism Staphylococcus aureus, aureus represents the _____ level of classification.

species

The process of assigning names to the various taxonomic rankings of a microbial species is knows as:

identification
taxonomy
nomenclature
classification

nomenclature

In the deductive approach to the scientific method, which of the following is the first step?

Performing experiments to test for particular events
Outlining particular events predicted by a hypothesis
Constructing a hypothesis to explain what has been observed or measured

Constructing a hypothesis to explain what has been observed or measured

A scientific _____ is a collection of statements, propositions, or concepts that explains or accounts for a natural event.

theory

Which of the following is the orderly arrangement of organisms into groups that indicate evolutionary relationships and history?

Classification
Identification
Nomenclature

Classification

Use of a laboratory test to determine the fermentation capabilities of a microbial species is part of the process known as _____.

identification

The technology that is used to alter DNA and switch genetic material from one organism to another is know as:

geomicrobiology
bioremediation
recombinant DNA technology
biotechnology
microbial morphology

recombinant DNA technology

_____ is the process by which microbes carry out the decomposition of harmful chemicals. This is the introduction of microbes into the environment to clean up toxic pollutants.

Bioremediation

A(n) _____ derives benefits from its host and harms its host in the process.

parasite
symbiont
commensal
microorganism

parasite

Which term defines the organism in/on which smaller organisms (or viruses) live, feed, and reproduce?

Host
Virus
Parasite

Host

A(n) _____ disease, such as SARS or viral encephalitis, is a newly identified infectious disease that is becoming more prominent.

emerging

Which type of organism can derive all of the nutrients and factors it requires in order to reproduce from the environment?

Prokaryotic organism
Parasite
Virus
Free-living organism

Free-living organism

The germ theory of disease has been so thoroughly tested that it has become a _____ or principle.

law

Which of the following processes is the decomposition of harmful chemicals by microbes?

Bioremediation
Pasteurization
Fermentation

Bioremediation

Genetic _____, or recombinant DNA technology, is a method of deliberately modifying the genetic structure of an organism to create novel products.

engineering

In the Whittaker system, the most inclusive level of classification is the _____.

species
phylum
kingdom
domain

kingdom

Use of a laboratory test to determine the fermentation capabilities of a microbial species is part of the process known as _____.

identification

Which of the following are aspects of microbiology that are studied by microbiologists?

Microbial genetics
Industrial microbiology
Environment
Horticulture
Agricultural engineering

Microbial genetics
Industrial microbiology
Environment

The level of classification directly under the genus is the _____.

kingdom
order
family
species

species

_____ are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that lack a cell wall.

Protozoa

Which of the following are branches of study in microbiology?

Bacteriology
Virology
Zoology
Mycology
Immunology

Bacteriology
Virology
Mycology
Immunology

What is a helminth?

A parasitic worm
A prokaryotic cell that lives in harsh environments
A filamentous stage in fungal life cycle
A unicellular pathogen

A parasitic worm

_____ are photosynthetic single-celled or multicellular microorganisms are often found in aquatic environments.

Algae

Eukaryotic organisms are:

only single-celled
only multicellular
either unicellular or multicellular

either unicellular or multicellular

Which of the following microorganisms are made up of eukaryotic cells?

Fungi
Archaea
Protozoans
Helminths
Viruses
Bacteria

Fungi
Protozoans
Helminths

Which of the following are prokaryotic microbes?

Plants
Fungi
Archaea
S. aureus
Bacteria

Archaea
S. aureus
Bacteria

_____ DNA technology is used to switch genetic material from one organism to another in order to produce desirable proteins.

Recombinant

A disease that has been known for hundreds of years and that is increasing in occurrence is known as a(n) _____ disease.

emerging
communicable
reemerging

reemerging

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are about _____ infections of all types across the world every year.

10 billion
100 million
1 billion
1 million

10 billion

Which of the following are aspects of microbiology that are studied by microbiologists?

Microbial genetics
Agricultural engineering
Horticulture
Environment
Industrial microbiology

Microbial genetics
Environment
Industrial microbiology

Which scientist established a connection between infections in the maternity ward and physicians with unwashed hands coming directly from autopsies?

Lister
van Leeuwenhoek
Semmelweis
Koch

Semmelweis

Generally, _____ microbes are larger than prokaryotic microbes.

eukaryotic

The unit of measurement for most bacterial cells is _____ and most viruses is _____.

millimeters; nanometers
micrometers; nanometers
micrometers; micrometers
nanometers; micrometers

micrometers; nanometers

Who developed the first single-lens microscope?

Robert Koch
Louis Pasteur
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Ignaz Semmelweis

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Which of the following are contributions made by Koch to the development of microbiology?

Establishment of techniques for the growing of microorganisms in culture.

Development of modern aseptic techniques practices in surgery.

Identification of the agent responsible for causing anthrax.

Realization that hand washing reduces the chance of disease.

Invention of pasteurization for the preservation of food.

Establishment of a series of proofs that verified the germ theory of disease.

Establishment of techniques for the growing of microorganisms in culture.

Identification of the agent responsible for causing anthrax.

Establishment of a series of proofs that verified the germ theory of disease.

Before a hypothesis may be tested using the _____ approach of the scientific method, events that will happen must be predicted by the scientist.

deductive

Microbiology has many branches of study; _____ is the detailed study of fungi, whereas _____ is the study of the body's defenses to infection.

mycology, immunology

True or False: If two microbes are of the same genus, they must be in the same class.

True

True or False: If two microbes are in the same family, they must be the same species.

False
Species is a more specific level of classification than family, therefore, not every species will be part of the same family.

_____ promoted hand washing before Lister introduced disinfection during surgery.

Semmelweis

_____ is the process that uses the sun's energy to produce organic compounds and ATP from carbon dioxide and water.

Photosynthesis

True or False: Staphylococcus aureus is the correct way to write this organism's binomial name when used in a scientific journal article.

False
Need to be italicized.

In the _____ system of nomenclature, organisms are assigned and identified by a two-word name representing the genus and species names.

binomial

Actual classification of organisms, not the naming system.

Taxonomy

All members of the same phylum must also be members of the same _____.

genus
kingdom
species

kingdom
*Members of a higher taxonomic level may not be in the same lower taxonomic level.

The binomial system of nomenclature assigns _____ names to each organism.

four
one
two
three

two

Which of the following microorganisms represent prokaryotic cell types?

Protists
Bacteria
Viruses
Algae

Bacteria

A(n) _____ is any small, membrane-bound component found inside of a eukaryotic cell.

organelle

Which type of microorganism possesses a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, and undergoes mitotic cell division?

Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic

Eukaryotic

A microorganism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus and most membrane-bound organelles, and divides by binary fission is correctly termed a _____.

prokaryote

True or False: All prokaryotes are microorganisms, but not all eukaryotes are microorganisms.

True

The major groups of microbes include the _____, fungi, _____, protozoa, algae, and plants.

bacteria, virus

_____ refers to any life forms that cannot be observed easily without magnification, not only those organisms that cause disease.

Microbes

Which microbe(s) have a true nucleus?

Archaea
Virus
Prion
Protists
Yeast

Protists
Yeast

*Prions are infectious proteins, not cells, and therefore lack a true nucleus.

"Microbes" and "_____" are terms that can be used interchangeably.

microorganisms

Organisms that are only visible with the aid of a microscope are referred to as _____.

microscopic

A good hypothesis must be:

tested once to determine its complete validity

true in all related situations

developed from a scientific theory

able to be supported or rejected by experimentation

able to be supported or rejected by experimentation

True or False: The scientific method takes into account preconceived ideas, such as religion or superstition, of the scientist.

False

A(n) _____ is the term used for ANY disease-causing microorganism.

pathogen

A(n) _____ cell will not contain organelles, such as mitochondria or a nucleus.

prokaryotic
eukaryotic
plant
human

prokaryotic

What cellular structure is found in ALL cells?

Golgi
Lysosome
Cell membrane
Mitochondria
Nucleus

Cell membrane

In both classification systems, the _____ is the most specific level of organization and is immediately under the genus.

species

A protozoan lives and reproduces inside of a human red blood cell. In this case, the human is an example of a(n) _____.

parasite
vector
commensal
host

host

A microbial pathogen is considered a(n) _____ because it derives benefits from its host and harms its host in the process

parasite

_____ is the process of arranging organisms into groups based on relationships and history.

Classification

All members of a family are classified in the same _____.

genus
kingdom
species

kingdom

Fungi, protozoans, and helminths are all composed of _____ cells, whereas bacteria and archaea are composed of _____ cells.

eukaryotic
prokaryotic

Microbiology has a large range of disciplines; _____ involves the monitoring and control of the spread of disease through communities, whereas _____ involves any process in which humans use the metabolism of organism to arrive at a desired product.

epidemiology
biotechnology

For the organism Escherichia coli, coli represents the _____.

species

For the organism Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus represents the _____ level of classification.

genus

The appropriate binomial abbreviation of Staphylococcus aureus is:

Staph
S. aureus
Staph aureus
Staphylococcus a.

S. aureus

Which of the following could be considered nomenclature?

Grouping species of bacteria into the genus Salmonella based on relationships between them.

Assigning a name to a new isolate of Salmonella based on its geography (Salmonella arizona).

Determining that Salmonella species are capable of producing hydrogen sulfide.

Assigning a name to a new isolate of Salmonella based on its geography (Salmonella arizona).

Who developed a series of proofs that verified the germ theory and could be used to determine which organism caused which disease?

Pasteur
Koch
Lister
Redi

Koch

The _____ theory of disease, first proposed in the 1800s, stated that microorganisms could cause infection and illness.

germ

_____ is the breakdown of dead matter and wastes into simple compounds that can be directed back into the natural cycle of living things.

Decomposition

Viral particles are usually _____ than prokaryotic cells.

smaller
larger

smaller

Which of the following could be considered identification?


Assigning a name to a new isolate of Salmonella based on its geography (Salmonella arizona).

Grouping species of bacteria into the genus Salmonella based on relationships between them.

Determining that Salmonella species are capable of producing hydrogen sulfide.

Determining that Salmonella species are capable of producing hydrogen sulfide.

Microbes are involved in the flow of _____ and food through the world's ecosystems.

energy

What technology involves the deliberate modification of the genetic structure of an organism to create novel products?

DNA fingerprinting
Organic agriculture
Genetic engineering
PCR

Genetic engineering

A free_living organism could be considered the opposite of a _____ organism.

parasitic

In the 1600s, van Leeuwenhoek developed a large collection of single-lens _____.

microscopes

Which cell type is generally larger in size?

Prokaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cells

Eukaryotic cells

Which process uses the sun's energy to produce organic compounds and ATP from carbon dioxide and water?

Respiration
Photosynthesis
Bioremediation

Photosynthesis

When a theory is supported by compelling evidence that it is correct, it becomes known as a

law
deduction
hypothesis

law

_____ diseases are among the most common causes of death in much of the world's population.

Infectious

In general, disease-causing organisms are referred to as:

microorganisms
bacteria
pathogens
animacules

pathogens

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