the ability of one person to get another person to act in accordance with the first person's intentions
the right to use power
political authority conferred by law, public opinion, or constitution
the political orientation of those who favor government by the people or by their elected representatives
Direct of Participatory Democracy
a government in which all or most of its citizens participate directly
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
People who believe that those who control the economic system also control the political one.
the appointed officials who operate government agencies from day to day
a theory that competition among all affected interests shapes public policy
based on nature and Providence rather than on the preferences of people
Articles of Confederation
a constitution drafted in 1777 and ratified in 1781; weak central govt. that could make laws or regular commerce
meeting of delegates in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced the new U.S. Constitution
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes.
compromise at the Constitutional convention calling for a two-house legislature, with one house elected on the basis of population and the other representing each state equally
A form of democracy in which power is vested in representatives selected by means of popular, competitive elections.
The power of the courts to declare acts of the legislature and of the executive to be unconstitutional and hence null and void.
Checks and Balances
The power of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government to block some acts by the other two branches.
A political system in which ultimate authority is shared between a central government and state or regional government.
Separation of Powers
A principle of American government whereby constitutional authority is shared by three separate branches of government.
According to James Madison, a group of people who seek to influence public policy in way contrary to the public good.
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the constitution
opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states
a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution
An alliance among different interest groups or parties to achieve some political goal.
Writ of Habeas Corpus
A court order directing a police officer, sheriff, or warden who has a person in custody to bring the prisoner before a judge and show sufficient cause for his or her detention.
Bill of Attainder
a law that declares a person, without a trial, to be guilty of a crime
ex post facto law
a law that would allow a person to be punished for an action that was not against the law when it was committed
Bill of Rights
A list of individual rights. (10 Amendments)
Changes in, or additions to, the U.S Constitution. Amendments are proposed by a 2/3 vote of both houses of Congress or by a convention called by Congress at the request of 2/3 of the state legislatures and ratified by approval of 3/4 of the states.
Line Item Veto
The power of an executive to veto some provisions in an appropriations bill while approving others. The president does not have the right to exercise a line-item veto and must approve or reject an entire appropriations bill.