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The vocabulary for my unit test from the seventh edition of the Human Geography: Culture, Society, and Space textbook. Ch 1. - Geography and Human Geography Ch 2. - Ch. 29 -

folk culture

largely self-suficient, somewhat isolated groups with long-standing traditions that change comparatively slowly through time

popular culture

the rapidly changeable, nontraditional heterogeneous ideas and practices of urban industrial societies

commodification

changing something that wasn't originally made to be bought and sold into something that can be bought and sold.

human geography

one of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, their cultures, activities, and landscapes

physical geography

one of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, procesesses, and location of the Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography

absolute location

the position or place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude.

relative location

the regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places.

spatial perspective

the way of looking at the world's layout

map

a geographic tool used for anything from waging war to solving medical problems to locating shopping centers

mental map

image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual's perception, impression, and knowledge of that space

distribution

how people are spread out and located on Earth

formal region

a type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomenal; also called uniform region or homogeneous region

functional region

a region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it

perceptual region

a region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity.

remote sensing

a method of collecting data or info through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study.

geographic information systems

a collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.

reference map

used to navigate. road and highway maps are most common

thematic map

used to display geographically themed information

chloropleth

uses varying colors to convey info

graduated map

uses relatively sized shapes to represent relative values

dot map

used to display geographic theme

geographic themes

location, human-environment interactions, region, place, landscape, movement

pattern

reoccurences in the spatial arrangement of human activities or conditions

global-local continuum

what happens at one scale is not independent of what happens at other scales

culture region

area within which a particular culture system prevails

culture trait

a single attribute of a culture

culture complex

discrete combination of culture traits

culture system

culture complexes grouped together because they have culture traits in common

geographic regions

term used by many geographers instead of culture region

culture realm

most highly generalized regionalization of culture and geography

cultural langscape

composite of artificial features

sequent occupancy

area inhabited & transformed by a succession of cultural groups

cultural diffusion

occurs through the movement of people, goods, or ideas

independent invention

occurres when the same ideas or innovations appear in widely separated areas

expansion diffusion

an idea or innovation develops in a core area and remains strong there while spreading outward

contagions diffusion

a form of expansion diffusion in which nearly all adjacent individuals are affected

hierarchial diffusion

main channel of diffusion lies through some segment of those susceptible or adopting what is being diffused

stimulus diffuision

ideas may not be adopted but may result in local experimentation

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