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Townshend Acts

(1767) External/ indirect levies on glass, white lead, paper, and tea, the proceeds of which were used to pay colonial governors who had previously been paid directly by colonial assemblies. Sparked another wave of protests.

Albany Congress

(1754) Intercolonial congress summoned by the British government to foster greater colonial unity. Stepping stone to Constitution.

Declaratory Act

(1766) Passed alongside the repeal of the Stamp Act. It reaffirmed Parliament's unqualified sovereignty over the North American colonies.

Intolerable Acts

(1774) Series of punitive measures passed in retaliation for the Boston Tea Party. Closing the Port of Boston. Revoking a number of rights in the Massachusetts colonial charter. Expanding the Quartering Act.

John Hancock

"Rebel" ringleader along with Samuel Adams. Patriot of the American Revolution. First to sign the Declaration of Independence.

George Grenville

First aroused the resentment of the colonists in 1763. Ordered the Navy to enforce the Navigation Laws. Secured the Sugar Act from Parliament. Also imposed the stamp act.

Charles Townshend

British politician. Passed the Townshend Acts.

Proclamation of 1763

Decree issued by Parliament in the wake of Pontiac's Rebellion. Prohibited settlement beyond the Appalachians. Contributed to rising resentment of British rule in the American colonies.

Sugar Act

(1764) First law ever passed by the crown for raising tax revenue in the colonists for the crown. Duty on imported sugar from the West Indies. Lowered substantially in response to widespread protests.

Navigation Acts

Series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England and its colonies. Goal was to force colonial development into lines favorable to England.

Virtual representation

The members of Parliament spoke for the interests of all British subjects rather than for the interests of only the district that elected them. The colonists were supposedly included in the "British subjects"

Stamp Act

(1765) Put a tax on paper. In hindsight, very insignificant, but hugely important to the colonists. Confirms the colonists' insecurities.

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