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Conjunctiva

Mucus

Tarsal Glands

Oil

Lacrimal Glands

Salt solution

What is a sty?

An infection of the sebaceous gland of the eyelid.

What is conjunctivitis?

Inflammation of the conjunctiva characterized by redness, itching, & often accompanied by a discharge.

Suspensory Ligamnet:

attaches the lens to the ciliary body

Aqueous humor:

fluid filling the anterior segment of the eye

Optic disc:

the blind spot

Iris:

contains muscle that controls the size of the pupil

Canal of Schlemm:

drains the aqueous humor from the eye

Retina:

"sensory" tunic

Vitreous humor:

substance occupying the posterior segment of the eyeball

Choroid:

forms most of the pigmented vascular tunic

Fovea Centralis:

tiny pit in the macula lutea; contains only cones

Lens:

important light-bending structure of the eye; shape can be modified

Cornea:

anterior transparent part of the fibrous tunic

Sclera:

composed of touch, white, opaque, fibrous connective tissue

Describe the appearance of the retina:

a delicate white, probably crumpled, membrane that separates easily from the pigmented choroid

At what point is the retina attached to the posterior aspect of the eyeball:

the optic disc

Explain why the part of the image hitting the blind spot is not seen:

there are no rods or cones

Refraction:

light bending

Accommodation:

ability to focus for close (under 20 ft) vision

Emmetropia:

normal vision

Hyperopia:

inability to focus well on close objects (farsightedness)

Myopia:

nearsightedness

Astigmatism:

blurred vision due to unequal curvatures of the lens or cornea

Convergence:

medial movement of the eyes during focusing on close objects

Collectively called the ossicles:

avnil (incus), hammer (malleus), pinna

Ear structures involved with balance:

semicircular canals, vestibule

Transmits sound vibrations to the ossicles:

tympanic membrane

Three circular passages, each in a different plane of space:

auditory tube

Transmits the vibratory motion of the stirrup to the fluid in the inner ear:

oval window

Passage between the throat and the tympanic cavity:

auditory tube

Fluid contained within the membranous labyrinth:

endolymph

Contains the organ of Corti:

cochlear duct

sites of the maculae:

saccule, utricle

Hair cells of organ of Corti rest on this membrane:

basilar membrane

Gel-like membrane overlying the hair cells of the organ of Corti:

tectorial membrane

Contains the cristae ampullaris:

ampulla

Function in static equilibrium:

otoliths, saccule, utricle, semicircular ducts

Function in dynamic equilibrium:

ampulla, cupula, saccule, utricle

Carries auditory information to the brain:

cochlear duct

Gelatinous cap overlying hair cells of the crista ampullaris:

cupula

Grains of calcium carbonate in the maculae:

otolliths

Nystagmus:

the involuntary rolling of the eyes in any direction of the trailing of the eyes slowly in one direction, followed by rapid movement in opposite direction

What is the usual reason for conducting the Romber test?

to determine of proprioceptive impulses are being transmitted up the spinal cord to the brain properly

Normal balance, or equilibrium, depends on input from a number of sensory receptors. Name them.

vestibular, visual, somatic receptors

Name 3 sites where receptors for taste are found, and circle the predominant site:

soft palate epiglottis, pharynx inner surface of cheeks, & papillae(predominant)

Describe the cellular makeup & arrangement of a taste bud:

taste buds consist of both gustatory cells & basal cells & are located deep between circum vallate papilla

Taste & smell receptors are both classified as________ because they both respond to chemicals in solution.

chemoreceptors

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