Psychology- Chapter 1- Defining Psychology

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Defining Psychology

sociocultural

The ____ approach focuses on comparisons of behavior across countries as well as on the behavior of individuals from different ethnic and cultural groups within a country.

cognitive

According to the ____ approach, human behavior is primarily controlled by an individual's mental processes.

humanistic

The ____ approach emphasizes a person's positive qualities and capacity for positive growth.

cognitive

Which of the following schools of thought focuses on the unconscious aspects of human thought and behavior? behaviorism, humanistic, cognitive, psychoanalysis

skinner

____ believed that psychology should be about what people do, and should not concern itself with what cannot be seen (e. g. , internal states such as thoughts, feelings, and goals).

biological

Dr. Zimand is studying the association between the functioning of specific brain structures and depression. It is likely that Dr. Zimand specializes in the ____________ approach to psychology.

structuralism / functionalism

Wilhelm Wundt was the founder of ____________, whereas William James was the founder of __________.

skepticism, critical thinking, curiosity

The heart of the scientific method is based on ____.

Sigmund Freud

believed that most of human behavior is caused by dark, unpleasant, unconscious impulses pressing for expression.

Psychology

____ seeks to understand the truths of human life in all its dimensions, including people's best and worst experiences.

philosophy

myths gave way to THIS; The rational investigation of the underlying principles of being and knowledge.

Western philosophy; thought and behavior; mind and the body

_____ came of age in ancient Greece in the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.E. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and others debated the nature of ___ and ___, including the possible link between the ____ and the ____

separate

Later philosophers, especially René Descartes, argued that the mind and body were completely _____, and they focused their attention on the mind.

Psychology

THIS grew out of this tradition of thinking about the mind and body.

natural sciences of biology and physiology

In addition to philosophy, psychology also has roots in the

Wilhelm Wundt

a German philosopher-physician, who put the pieces of the philosophy-natural science puzzle together to create the academic discipline of psychology

Wilhelm Wundt

performed an experiment to measure the time lag between the instant a person heard a sound and when that person pressed a telegraph key to signal that he had heard it.

Wilhelm Wundt

WHO'S study was about the workings of the brain: He was trying to measure the time it took the human brain and nervous system to translate information into action. At the heart of this experiment was the idea that mental processes could be measured.

structuralism

Wundt and his collaborators concentrated on discovering the basic elements, or "structures," of mental processes. Their approach was called

structuralism

focus on identifying the structures of the human mind

introspection

The method wundt used in the study of mental structures was

JAMES

From WHO's perspective, the key question for psychology is not so much what the mind is (that is, its structures) as what it is for (its purpose or function)

functionalism.

James's view was eventually named

functionalism

probed the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in the individual's adaptation to the environment.

structuralism

looking inside the mind and searching for its structures, functionalists focused on what was going on in human interactions with the outside world and trying to understand the purpose of thoughts.

structuralism; functionalism

If _____ is about the "what" of the mind, ____ is about the "why."

adaptive

how it makes an organism better able to survive

JAMES

saw the mind as flexible and fluid, characterized by constant change in response to a continuous flow of information from the world.

stream of consciousness

James called the natural flow of thought a

evolution

functionalism fit well with the theory of

Charles Darwin

natural selection proposed by British naturalist

Charles Darwin

published his ideas in On the Origin of Species

natural selection

an evolutionary process in which organisms that are best adapted to their environment will survive and, importantly, produce offspring.

Natural selection

Darwin noted that members of any species are often locked in competition for scarce resources such as food and shelter. the process by which the environment determines who wins that competition is called?

subsequent generations

Darwin asserted that organisms with biological features that led to survival and reproduction would be better represented in

by natural selection

Over many generations, organisms with survival and reproduction characteristics would constitute a larger percentage of the population. Eventually this process could change an entire species. If environmental conditions changed, however, other characteristics might become favored by _____, moving the process in a different direction.

genetic mutation; adaptive

According to evolutionary theory, species change through random ____ That means that essentially by accident, some members of a species are born with genetic characteristics that make them different from other members. If these changes are ___ (for example, if they help those giraffes compete for food, survive, and reproduce), they become more common in members of the species

observation

Darwin's theory continues to influence psychologists today because it is strongly supported by ____

biological approach

which is a focus on the body, especially the brain and nervous system.

Neuroscience

is the scientific study of the structure, function, development, genetics, and biochemistry of the nervous system.

Neuroscience

emphasizes that the brain and nervous system are central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion

Neuro

_____scientists believe that thoughts and emotions have a physical basis in the brain.

behavioral approach

emphasizes the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants. It focuses on an organism's visible interactions with the environment—that is, behaviors, not thoughts or feelings

behaviorists

The psychologists who adopt behavioral approach are called

John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner

Under the intellectual leadership of ___ and ____ behaviorism dominated psychological research during the first half of the twentieth century

B. F. Skinner

emphasized that psychology should be about what people do—their actions and behaviors—and should not concern itself with things that cannot be seen, such as thoughts, feelings, and goals. He believed that rewards and punishments determine our behavior.

cognition

not every behaviorist today accepts the earlier behaviorists' rejection of thought processes, which are often called

psychodynamic approach

emphasizes unconscious thought, the conflict between biological drives (such as the drive for sex) and society's demands, and early childhood family experiences.

psychodynamic approach

Practitioners of WHICH approach believe that sexual and aggressive impulses buried deep within the unconscious mind influence the way people think, feel, and behave.

FREUD

the founding father of the psychodynamic approach, theorized that early relationships with parents shape an individual's personality.

FREUD

wHO'S theory was the basis for the therapeutic technique that he called psychoanalysis

psychoanalysis

involves an analyst's unlocking a person's unconscious conflicts by talking with the individual about his or her childhood memories, dreams, thoughts, and feelings

humanistic approach

emphasizes a person's positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose one's destiny.

humanistic

Why type of psychologists stress that people have the ability to control their lives and are not simply controlled by the environment

humanistic

These psychologists theorize that rather than being driven by unconscious impulses (as the psychodynamic approach dictates) or by external rewards (as the behavioral approach emphasizes), people can choose to live by higher human values such as altruism and free will

altruism

unselfish concern for other people's well-being

humanistic

Many aspects of WHICH optimistic approach appear in research on motivation, emotion, and personality psychology

cognitive psychologists

According to THIS type of psychologist, your brain houses a "mind" whose mental processes allow you to remember, make decisions, plan, set goals, and be creative

cognitive approach

emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing: how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems

cognitive

Which psychologists view the mind as an active and aware problem-solving system

cognitive

This view contrasts with the behavioral view, which portrays behavior as controlled by external environmental forces; this views, an individual's mental processes are in control of behavior through memories, perceptions, images, and thinking.

Evolutionary Approach

uses evolutionary ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors.

Evolutionary

This type of psychologists argue, the way we adapt is traceable to problems early humans faced in adapting to their environments

Evolutionary

These psychologists believe that their approach provides an umbrella that unifies the diverse fields of psychology

Sociocultural Approach

examines the ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior

Socioculturalists

This type of psychologist argue that understanding a person's behavior requires knowing about the cultural context in which the behavior occurs

Sociocultural Approach

focuses not only on comparisons of behavior across countries but also on the behavior of individuals from different ethnic and cultural groups within a country

Wilhelm Wundt

founded the academic discipline of psychology.

Structuralism

was first studied by Wundt and his collaborators

Structuralism

focused on the basic elements or structures of mental processes

Introspection

was the method used to study these mental structures. Individuals were asked to think about what was occurring mentally as events were taking place. These studies focused mainly on sensation and perception, because those were the aspects that could be broken down into component parts.

Functionalism

theory concerned with the functions and purposes of the mind in individuals' adaptation to the environment

Functionalism

theory that meshed well with another intellectual development, Charles Darwin's principle of natural selection.

Structuralism, Functionalism

_____ were looking inside the mind, while ______ were focusing on how humans interacted with the outside world

biological approach

emphasizes the study of the body, especially the brain and the nervous system.

Neuroscience

is the scientific study of the structure, function, development, genetics, and biochemistry of the nervous system.

Neuroscience/biological approach

study that emphasizes that the brain and nervous system are central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion.

behavioral approach

emphasizes the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants.

John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner

the first behaviorists

psychodynamic approach

emphasizes unconscious thought, the conflict between biological instincts and society's demands, and early family experiences.

Sigmund Freud

the founder of the psychodynamic approach

Sigmund Freud

believed that a person's early interactions with his or her parents were the major factor that shaped an individual's personality.

humanistic approach

emphasizes a person's positive qualities, his or her capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose any destiny.

humanistic approach

the approach that psychologists stress that people have the ability to control their lives and avoid being manipulated by the environment.

cognitive approach

emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing: how we direct our attention, how we perceive, how we remember, and how we think and solve problems.

evolutionary approach

uses ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and the concept of the survival of the fittest as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors

evolutionary approach

psychologists believe that THIS approach provides an umbrella that unifies the diverse fields of psychology

sociocultural approach

emphasizes the ways in which the social and cultural environments influence behavior.

Psychology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

Behavior

everything that a person does that can be directly observed

Mental processes

the internal thoughts, feelings, and motives that cannot be directly observed.

Behavior

is everything we do that can be directly observed—two people kissing, a baby crying, a college student riding a motorcycle to campus.

Mental processes

are the thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experiences privately but that cannot be observed directly

Critical thinking

is the process of thinking deeply and actively, asking questions, and evaluating the evidence

CRITICAL THINKING

THIS means asking ourselves how we know something, question and test what some people say are facts, examine research to see how soundly it supports an idea, reduces the likelihood that conclusions will be based on unreliable personal beliefs, opinions, and emotions.

objective

practicing science means being

empirical methods

Scientists believe that one of the best ways to be objective is to use ___ to learn about the world

empirical method

Using the _____ means gaining knowledge through observation of events and logical reasoning

objective

Being THIS involves trying to see things as they really are, not just as we would like them to be; means waiting to see what the evidence tells us rather than going with our hunches and knowing that we have to have sound evidence before answering that question.

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