Chapter 5: Lipids!!

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Lipids

diverse group of organic compounds: grouped together because they are HYDROPHOBIC

insoluble in water

will dissolve in nonpolar solvents

not a true polymer; still a macrolecule

Fats

composed of
glycerol(3-carbon alcohol;each with a hydroxyl group)
fatty acid(contains carboxyl group; long hydrocarbon chain or "tail)
the nonpolar C-H bonds make the chain hydrophobic and insoluble in water

monomer of lipids/fats

tryglyceride

covalent bond that links tryglycerides

ester linkage

functions of fats

energy storage(1g of fat stores 2x as much energy as 1g of catbohydrate)!!

cushions vital organs in mammals(ex: kidney)

insulates against heat loss(ex: whales, seals)

phospholipids

composed of
glycerol
2 fatty acids(hydrophobic)
a phosphate group(hydrophilic)

steroids

composed of
4 fused carbon rings with various functional groups

cholesterol

is preursor to many other steroids(including sex hormones in vertebrates)

common component of cell membranes

can cause atherosclerosis(if have too much)

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