Scientific study of the SHAPE AND STRUCTURE of the human body
Scientific study of HOW the body functions
What is the "anatomical (or anatomic) position"?
The body standing upwards facing forward with feet together, arms hanging at the sides and palms forward.
Imaginary lines used to divide the body into sections
What is the "midsagittal plane (median plane or midline plane)"?
VERTICAL plane dividing the body into EQUAL left and right halves
What is the "sagittal plane"?
ANY vertical plane parallel to the midline that divides the body, from top to bottom, into UNEQUAL left and right portions
What is the "horizontal plane (transverse plane)"?
HORIZONTAL plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
What is the "frontal plane (coronal plane)"?
ANY VERTICAL plane at RIGHT ANGLES to the midsagittal plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions.
Draw the following:
(1) Midsagittal plane
(2) Horizontal plane
(3) Frontal plane
(4) Sagittal plane
Nice drawing cutes!
What are the 4 organizational levels of the human body?
(4) Body Systems
Basic units of structure of the human body
Each tiny cell has what 3 unique capabilities?
(1) React to stimuli and transform nutrients into energy
(2) To grow
(3) To replicate
What is the point of cell differentiation?
To give cells specialized functions (The human body contains many types of cells, each with a specific function)
What are "stem cells"?
Immature, UNspecialized cells in the body
**Stem cells can be INDUCED to become other types of cells in the body**
What two sources are stem cells identified by?
(1) Embryonic stem cells
(2) Adult stem cells
Define "embryonic stem cells"
Stem cells from embryos grown in a test tube. These are used for research purposes.
Define "adult stem cells"
Stem cells found in the bone marrow of both adults and children
What 2 purposes does the cell membrane serve?
(1) Helps the cell maintain its form and separates cell contents from surrounding environment
(2) Has special physical and chemical properties that allow it to recognize and interact with other cells (decides what may enter or leave the cell)
Gel-like fluid inside the cell
Highly organized, small structures inside the cytoplasm
What do organelles do?
Manufacture, modify, store and transport (MMiST) proteins and dispose of cellular wastes.
What is the "nucleus"
The "control center" of the cell
The nucleus of every cell contains a complete set of a body's ____________?
Tissues are formed when?
When many millions of the same cell join together to perform a SPECIFIC FUNCTION for the body
What are the 4 main tissue types?
Define "epithelial tissue"
Forms a COVERING for the external and internal body surfaces
What are the purposes of epithelial tissue? (3 of them)
(1) Provide PROTECTION
(2) Produce SECRETIONS
(3) REGULATE PASSAGE of material across them
Define "connective tissue"
The major SUPPORT MATERIAL of the body
Define "muscle tissue"
Has the ability to lengthen and shorten which allows them to move body parts
Skeletal muscles are either _________ or ________
Where do you find "nerve tissue"?
Brain, spinal cord and nerves
Organs are formed when?
When several types of tissue group together to perform a SINGLE FUNCTION
Draw a flow chart showing the relationship between cells, tissues, organs and body systems
You draw so nice! :P
Define a "body system"
Body systems are composed of a group of organs that work together to perform a MAJOR FUNCTION to keep the body healthy and functional
Define "dorsal cavity"
Cavity located at the BACK of the body [contains the nervous system]
Define "ventral cavity"
Cavity located at the FRONT of the body
"Parietal" refers to what?
The WALLS of a body cavity
What 2 cavities is the DORSAL CAVITY divided into?
(1) Cranial cavity (contains the brain)
(2) Spinal cavity (contains spinal cord)
What 3 cavities is the VENTRAL CAVITY divided into?
(1) Thoracic cavity (contains heart, lungs, esophagus and trachea)
(2) Abdominal cavity (contains stomach, liver, gall bladder, spleen and most of the intestines)
(3) Pelvic cavity (contains portions of the small and large intestines, rectum, urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs)
What is the "abdominopelvic cavity"?
The pelvic AND abdominal cavities (together)
What is the "axial" division mad eup of?
Division consisting of the head, neck and trunk
What is the "appendicular" region made up of?
Region consisting of the arms and legs
What is the difference between "anatomy" and "physiology"?
Anatomy: Scientific study of the SHAPE and STRUCTURE of the human body
Physiology: Scientific study of how the body FUNCTIONS
What 3 imaginary lines are used to divide the body into sections?
(1) Midsagittal plane
(2) Horizontal plane
(3) Frontal plane
Define "superior" [Directional terms for the Human Body]
Above another part, or closer to the head
Define "proximal" [Directional terms for the Human Body]
Closer to a point of attachment, or closer to trunk of the body
Define "distal" [Directional terms for the Human Body]
Farther from a point of attachment, or farther from trunk or body
Define "medial" [Directional terms for the Human Body]
Toward, or nearer the midline
What new field of medicine based on use of stem cells offers hope tot hose who suffer from Parkinson's disease, diabetes and autoimmune, liver and cardiovascular disease?
How would you visualize the semipermeable function of the cell?
A teabag in a cup of water --> Holds tea leaves in the bag while allowing water to move in and out of the bag.
What is the portion of the cell that carries genetic information?
DNA and RNA
What are the 4 organizational levels of the human body, from simplest to most complex?
(4) Body Systems
What are the functions of "epithelial tissue"?
(1) PROTECTS the body from exposure to disease-causing organisms
(2) LINES internal organs and body cavities
(3) SECRETE substances such as digestive juices, hormones, milk, perspiration and mucus
What are the functions of STRIATED (skeletal and voluntary) "muscle tissue"?
(1) VOLUNTARY movement
(2) ATTACH to bones, tendons or other muscles
What are the functions of SMOOTH (visceral, non-striated and involuntary) "muscle tissue"?
(1) INVOLUNTARY movement
(2) Found in visceral (internal) organs and hollow body cavities
What are the functions of CARDIAC "muscle tissue"?
(1) Make up the walls of the HEART
(2) Helps PUMP BLOOD out of the heart
(3) INVOLUNTARY movement (even though striated)
What are the functions of "nerve tissue"?
(1) REACTS to environmental stimuli
(2) CARRY MESSAGES (impulses) to and from the brain
(3) Found in the brain, spinal cord and sense organs
What are the functions of ADIPOSE (fat) "connective tissue"?
(1) Stores fat
(2) Provide energy source when needed
(3) Cushions, supports and insulates the body
What are the functions of SUPPORTIVE "connective tissue"?
(1) Osseous tissue (bone) PROTECTS AND SUPPORTS other organs
(2) Cartilage provides FIRM FLEXIBLE SUPPORT (eg. nose) and serves as a shock absorber at the joints
What are the functions of DENSE FIBROUS "connective tissue"?
(1) Ligaments are strong, flexible bands that HOLD BONES TOGETHER AT THE JOINTS
(2) Tendons are white glossy bands that ATTACH SKELETAL MUSCLES TO THE BONES
What are the functions of VASCULAR "connective tissue"?
(1) Blood TRANSPORTS NUTRIENTS AND OXYGEN to body cells and carries away waste products
(2) Lymph TRANSPORTS TISSUE, FLUID, PROTEINS, FAT AND OTHER MATERIALS from the tissues to the capillaries
What are the 2 major body cavities?
(1) Axial (head, neck and trunk)
(2) Appendicular (arms and legs)