Zoology

22 terms by aab23 

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mitosis+meiosis

Mitosis

cell division in which chromosome number stays the same two cells produced from original cell

Meiosis

cell division in which chromosome number is cut in half and 4 cells produced rom the original cell

Stages of mitosis

Interphase (G1,S,G2)
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis

division of cytoplasm

Prophase

chromosomes fully condensed
nuclear membrane completely breaks up
centrioles migrate to opposite poles of the cell
spindle fibers form between poles
chromosomes attach to spindle fibers at centromeres

Metaphase

chromosomes align in the middle between 2 poles

Anaphase

sister chromatids separate and migrate to opposite poles

Telophase

chromosomes un-condense
nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes
spindle apparatus breaks up

Gene

section of DNA that codes for protein

Homologs

alternate forms of chromosome that code for the same sets of proteins

Allele

alternative forms of a gene that codes for the same protein

Linked genes

genes that occur on the same chromosome

Dyad

sister chromatids --> 2 copies of the same chromosome

TetraD

homologs = 2 Dyads --> 4 chromosomes

Synapsis

dyads contact one another to form tetrad

Chiasmata

points of connection between non-sister chromatids in tetrad

Crossing over

exchange of DNA between non-sister chromatids at Chiasmata
- Occurs at metaphase I
- Splitting occurs at Anaphase I

Interkinesis

waiting phase, getting ready for second Meiosis

Mendel's laws

1. Segregation of Alleles
2. Independent assortment

Genotype

genetic make up in diploid organisms

Phenotype

expressed i.e. "what it looks like"

Test cross

homozygous recessive individual "aa".

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