Rockets

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Newton's First Law

An object will keep moving at a constant velocity unless an outside net force acts upon it

Newton's Second Law

An object will accelerate in the direction of the applied force

Newton's Third Law

For every action there is an equal but opposite reaction force

Propellant

Fuel used to propel (move) rockets

Thrust

the force that propels (moves) the rocket

Impulse

The force applied times the amount of time that the force is applied in seconds

Mass

the amount of matter in a substance

Force

a push or a pull on an object

Acceleration

the change in velocity per unit time

Velocity

the displacement per unit time, includes both speed and direction

Liquid Propellant

a liquid fuel, usually liquid oxygen, hydrogen, or methane

g

the acceleration due to gravity, changes depending upon the mass and radius of the planet or moon

exhaust gases

what is sent out the back of a rocket

Solid fuel

Solid chemicals used to propel (move) a rocket, once lit they can not be stopped

Kepler's First Law

The path of the planets about the sun are elliptical in shape, with the center of the sun being located at one focus. (The Law of Ellipses)

Kepler's Second Law

An imaginary line drawn from the center of the sun to the center of the planet will sweep out equal areas in equal intervals of time. (The Law of Equal Areas)

Kepler's Third Law

The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances from the sun. (The Law of Harmonies)

the cargo carried into space by the rocket

Geostationary orbit

an orbit directly above the same spot on the earth's surface, the orbital period matches the rotation period of the planet

Rotation period

The amount of time it takes for a planet or moon to rotate once around its axis

Orbital period

the amount of time it takes a planet to orbit around the sun or for a satellite to complete one orbit

Satellite

an object that orbits a larger object

Asynchronous orbit

Satellites that orbit in same direction as earth's rotation but faster

Polar orbit

Satellites that move at right angles to the rotation of the planet or moon. This means the entire surface is covered over time.

Communication satellite

Satellite used to transmit and transfer phone, television, email and internet signals

Weather satellite

Satellites used to record temperature, cloud cover, precipitation, etc.

Remote sensing satellite

Satellite used to record electromagnetic radiation. Data is used to interpret several physical and biological processes occurring on the planet.

Global positioning satellite

Satellite used to help locate yourself on the surface of the planet

Example: