and , but , or,
When do you use a comma and coordinating conjunction for?
to join two independent clauses
When do you use a single comma?
to inicate that a word or words have been omitted, or to avoid a possible misreading
to separate three or more items in a series
to separate two or more coordinate adjectives preceding a noun
to set off introductory modifying phrases or clauses
to separate the parts of dates and addresses within sentences (use a comma after the last part if it does not end the sentence; do not use a comma between the month month and the day or between the state and the zip code
after the saluatation of a friendly letter; use after the closing of all letters
When do you use a pair of commas?
to indicate a nonessential element in a sentence (,---,)
to set off nonessential: appositives, participial phrases, adjective clauses and adverb clauses ; to set off words used in direct address;to set off well , yes and no and other interjections at the beginning of a sentence ;to set off parenthetical expressions
can be omitted adn the remaining words will still mean what they were intended to mean;if they come first or last in a sentence , only one half of the pair is needed
a noun or noun equivalent placed beside another noun or noun equivalent to identify or explain it
What happens if an element is interupted as essential or as nonessential?
The writer of the sentence must punctuate the sentence so that it conveys the meaning he intends
in fact, for example, of course, indeed, however, incidentally, nevertheless, on the contrary, in my opinion, at any rate, I think , suppose, etc