# Unit 2: Population

## 49 terms

### Demography

The study of human population

### Census

A periodic and official count of a country's population

### Population density

The number of individuals per unit area

### Arithmetic population density

The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit

### Physiologic population density

The number of people per unit area of arable land

### Population composition

Structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education

### Age-sex pyramid

Snapshots of the age structure of a population at some period in time

### Crude birth rate

The number of children born per 1000 people

### Crude death rate

A ratio of number of death in a year to every 1000 people.

### Infant mortality

A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population

### Total fertility rate

A measure of the reproductive status of a population

### Demographic transition

High birth rates and death rates are followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain; this is followed by the convergence of birth rates and death rates at a low overall level.

### Doubling time

The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

### Exponential growth

Growth of a population that multiplies by a constant factor at constant time intervals

### Linear growth

Arithmetic growth; increases at a constant amount per unit time

### Natural increase

Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths; does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements

### Population explosion

The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase

### Stationary population level

The level at which a national population ceases to grow.

### Absolute direction

The EXACT way or direction to get to something (north,south,east,west)

### Relative direction

Directions such as left, right, forward, backward, up, and down

### Absolute distance

The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.

### Relative distance

A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often it describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic, connectivity between two places.

### Push factors

Negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location

### Pull factors

Positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attack people to new locations from other areas

### Activity space

The space within which daily activity occurs.

### Cyclic movement

Migration with a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally. Usually lasts a few weeks to a couple months.

A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water.

### Seasonal movement

Movements that are taken based on a seasonal basis.

### Migration

A movement from one country or region to another

### Emigration

Migration from a place

### Forced migration

Human migration flows in which the movers have not choice but to relocate

### Voluntary migration

Movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity; not forced.

### Internal migration

Human movement within a nation-state, such as going westward and southward movements in the US.

### External migration

Migration across an international border.

### Interregional migration

Movement from one region of a country to another

### Step migration

Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city

### Counter migration

Migration back to an original area in which people had left

### Intervening opportunity

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away

### Distance decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin

### Refugee

Person who flees to another country to escape persecution or disaster

### Temporary refugees

Refugees encamped in a host country or host region while waiting for resettlement.

### Permanent refugees

Refugees who have been substantially integrated into the host country or host region and who are thus seen as long-term visitors.

### International refugees

Refugees who have crossed one or more international boundaries during their dislocation, searching for asylum in a different country

### Intranational refugees

Refugees who have abandoned their town or village but not their country

### Immigration laws

Laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state

### Eugenic population policy

Government policy designed to favor one race over another

### Expansive population policy

Government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth

### Restrictive population policy

Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase

### Negative population growth

The actual decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive diseases