## IPC Flashcards Chapters 3-4

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rockprincess14  on September 8, 2011

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Unit 1, Chapters 3-4 terms and definitions

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# IPC Flashcards Chapters 3-4

 states of matterthe physical forms of matter, which include solid, liquid, and gas
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#### Definitions

states of matter the physical forms of matter, which include solid, liquid, and gas
solid the state of matter in which the volume and shape of a substance are fixed
liquid the state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape
surface tension the force that acts on the surface of a liquid and that tends to minimize the area of the surface
viscosity the resistance of a gas or liquid to flow
gas a form of matter that does not have a definite volume or shape
temperature a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
volume a measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space
pressure the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface
[Robert] Boyle's Law states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of the gas is inversely related to the pressure
Charles's Law states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas changes in the same way that the temperature of the gas changes
change of state the change of a substance from one physical state to another
melting the change of state in which a solid becomes a liquid by adding heat
evaporation the change of state from a liquid to a gas
boiling the conversion of a liquid to a vapor when the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
condensation the change of state from a gas to a liquid
sublimation the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas
freezing the change of state from a liquid to a solid
endothermic change energy is gained by the substance as it changes state

example - melting
exothermic change energy is removed from the substance as it changes state

example - freezing
vapor pressure pressure inside the bubbles of the substance boiling
atoms and molecules particles that make up matter that are too small to be seen; they are always in motion and interact with each other
crystalline solid solids that have a three-dimensional arrangement of particles

examples: iron, diamond, ice
amorphous solid solids composed of particles that are arranged in no particular order

examples: wax, rubber
condensation point the temperature at which a gas becomes a liquid
element a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
pure substance a sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties
metal an element that is shiny and that conducts heat and electricity well
nonmetal an element that conducts heat and electricity poorly
metalloid an element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals
characteristic properties each element can be identified by its unique set of properties
compound a substance that is made of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
Law of Definite Proportions states that a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass, regardless of the size of the sample or the source of the compound
chemical reaction a reaction in which one or more substances are converted into different substances. The reactants are the starting materials in a chemical reaction. The products are the substances that are formed by a chemical reaction
decomposition reaction a chemical change in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances
mixture a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
solution a homogeneous mixture throughout which two or more substances are uniformly dispersed
dissolving the process in which particles of substances separate and spread evenly throughout a mixture
solute in a solution, the substance that dissolves in the solvent
solvent in a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves
soluble able to dissolve
concentration the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture, solution, or ore
solubility the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure
suspension a mixture in which particles of a material are more or less evenly dispersed throughout a liquid or gas
colloid a mixture consisting of tiny particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and those in suspensions and that are suspended in a liquid, solid, or gas
alloys solid solutions of metals or nonmetals dissolved in metals
characteristic properties each element can be identified by its own unique set of these
malleable can be hammered into thin sheets
ductile can be drawn into thin wires
magnesium oxide an example of a new pure substance formed... happens when magnesium reacts with oxygen

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