# Unit 2: Population Patterns & Processes

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Unit 1 (Population Patterns & Processes) flashcards for Advanced Placement Human Geography for Mr. Rodriguez. Definitions and Terms taken from the seventh edition of Human Geography: Culture, Society & Space by H.J. de Blij &Alexander B. Murphy. Flashcard Set by Crissy Peters (Hour 3).

### Demography

The study of population.

### Census

A period count of the current population.

### Population Density

The number of individuals per unit area.

### Arithmetic Population Density

The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area.

### Physiologic Population Density

The number of people per unit area of arable land.

### Population Composition

Structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties. (ex. marital status and education)

### Age-Sex Pyramid

A graphic representation of the age & sex of a population.

### Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

### Crude Death Rate (CDR)

The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

### Infant Mortality

The death rate of infants in their first year of life.

### Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.

### Demographic Transition (cycle)

A model of the effect of economic development on population growth based on births, deaths, and other statistics.

### Doubling Time

The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

### Exponential Growth

Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate.

### Linear Growth

Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.

### Natural Increase

The growth rate of a population; the difference between birthrate and death rate.

### Population Explosion

The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century.

### Stationary Population Level (SPL)

The level at which a national population ceases to grow.

### Absolute Direction

A compass direction such as north or south.

### Relative Direction

Direction based on a person's perception of an area.

### Absolute Distance

The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.

### Relative Distance

Approximate measurement of the physical space between two places.

### Push Factors

Negative conditions and perceptions that cause residents to move away.

### Pull Factors

Positive conditions and perceptions that cause residents to move in.

### Activity (Action) Space

The space within which daily activity occurs.

### Cyclic Movement

Movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally. (ex. nomadism)

Movement among a definite set of places. (example of cyclic movement)

### Seasonal Movement

Movements that are taken based on a seasonal basis. (example of cyclic movement)

### Migration

Movement from one area to another.

### Emigration

Movement from an area, especially migration, from your native country in order to settle in another.

### Forced Migration

When people are removed from their countries and forced to live in other countries because of war, natural disaster, and government. (ex. Atlantic Slave Trade, Jewish Diaspora)

### Voluntary Migration

Movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity; not forced.

### Internal Migration

Movement within a nation-state, such as westward and southward movements in the US.

### External Migration

Migration across an international border.

### Interregional Migration

Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.

### Step Migration

Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages. (ex. from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city)

### Counter Migration

Migration back to an original area in which people had left. (ex. migration increases after natural disasters, yet many eventually return after a time)

### Intervening Opportunity

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

### Distance Decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

### Refugee

Person who flees to another country to escape persecution or disaster.

### Temporary Refugees

Refugees encamped in a host country or host region while waiting for resettlement.

### Permanent Refugees

Person or persons who have been permanently displaced from their home.

### International Refugees

Refugees who have crossed 1 or more international boundaries during their dislocation.

### Intranational Refugees

Refugees who have abandoned their town or village but not their country.

### Immigration Laws

Laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state.

### Eugenic Population Policy

Government policy designed to favor one racial sector over others.

### Expansive Population Policy

Government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth.

### Restrictive Population Policy

Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase. (ex. Chinese can only have 1 child)

### Negative Population Growth

The decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive deaths.

Example: