Unit 2: Population Patterns & Processes

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Unit 1 (Population Patterns & Processes) flashcards for Advanced Placement Human Geography for Mr. Rodriguez. Definitions and Terms taken from the seventh edition of Human Geography: Culture, Society & Space by H.J. de Blij &Alexander B. Murphy. Flashcard Set by Crissy Peters (Hour 3).

Demography

The study of population.

Census

A period count of the current population.

Population Density

The number of individuals per unit area.

Arithmetic Population Density

The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area.

Physiologic Population Density

The number of people per unit area of arable land.

Population Composition

Structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties. (ex. marital status and education)

Age-Sex Pyramid

A graphic representation of the age & sex of a population.

Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

Crude Death Rate (CDR)

The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

Infant Mortality

The death rate of infants in their first year of life.

Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.

Demographic Transition (cycle)

A model of the effect of economic development on population growth based on births, deaths, and other statistics.

Doubling Time

The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

Exponential Growth

Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate.

Linear Growth

Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.

Natural Increase

The growth rate of a population; the difference between birthrate and death rate.

Population Explosion

The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century.

Stationary Population Level (SPL)

The level at which a national population ceases to grow.

Absolute Direction

A compass direction such as north or south.

Relative Direction

Direction based on a person's perception of an area.

Absolute Distance

The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.

Relative Distance

Approximate measurement of the physical space between two places.

Push Factors

Negative conditions and perceptions that cause residents to move away.

Pull Factors

Positive conditions and perceptions that cause residents to move in.

Activity (Action) Space

The space within which daily activity occurs.

Cyclic Movement

Movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally. (ex. nomadism)

Nomadism

Movement among a definite set of places. (example of cyclic movement)

Seasonal Movement

Movements that are taken based on a seasonal basis. (example of cyclic movement)

Migration

Movement from one area to another.

Emigration

Movement from an area, especially migration, from your native country in order to settle in another.

Forced Migration

When people are removed from their countries and forced to live in other countries because of war, natural disaster, and government. (ex. Atlantic Slave Trade, Jewish Diaspora)

Voluntary Migration

Movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity; not forced.

Internal Migration

Movement within a nation-state, such as westward and southward movements in the US.

External Migration

Migration across an international border.

Interregional Migration

Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.

Step Migration

Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages. (ex. from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city)

Counter Migration

Migration back to an original area in which people had left. (ex. migration increases after natural disasters, yet many eventually return after a time)

Intervening Opportunity

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

Distance Decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

Refugee

Person who flees to another country to escape persecution or disaster.

Temporary Refugees

Refugees encamped in a host country or host region while waiting for resettlement.

Permanent Refugees

Person or persons who have been permanently displaced from their home.

International Refugees

Refugees who have crossed 1 or more international boundaries during their dislocation.

Intranational Refugees

Refugees who have abandoned their town or village but not their country.

Immigration Laws

Laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state.

Eugenic Population Policy

Government policy designed to favor one racial sector over others.

Expansive Population Policy

Government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth.

Restrictive Population Policy

Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase. (ex. Chinese can only have 1 child)

Negative Population Growth

The decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive deaths.

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