Psychological dysfunction associated with distress or impairment in functioning that is not a typical or culturally expected response.
Psychological disorder characterized by marked and persistent fear of an object or situation.
Actions that are unexpected and often evaluated negatively because they differ from typical or usual behavior.
Scientific study of psychological disorders.
Original complaint reported by the client to the therapist. The actual treated problem maybe be a modification derived from the presenting problem.
Details of the combination of behaviors, and feelings of an individual that make up a particular disorder.
Religious ritual that attributes disordered behavior to possession by demons and seeks to treat the individual by driving the demons from the body.
treatment practice that focuses on social and cultural factors (such as family experience), as well as psychological influences. Psychosocial approaches include cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal methods.
Psychosocial approach in the 19th century that involved treating patients as normally as possible in normal environments.
mental hygiene movement
Mid-19th century effort to improve care of the mentally disordered by informing the public of their mistreatment.
Assessment and therapy pioneered by Sigmund Freud that emphasizes exploration of, and insight into, unconscious and conflicts.
explanation of human behavior, including dysfunction, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology.
personality theory and therapy emphasizing inherent striving of humans to reach their highest potential if conditions preventing growth are removed.
part of the psychic makeup that is outside the awareness of the person.
rapid or sudden release of emotional tension thought to be an important factor in psychoanalytic therapy.
complex and comprehensive theory originally advanced by Freud that seeks to account for the development and structure of personality, as well as the origin of abnormal behavior, based primarily on inferred inner entities and forces.
In psychoanalysis, the unconscious psychic entity present at birth representing basic drives.
The unconscious entity responsible for finding realistic and practical ways to satisfy id drives.
The psychic entity representing the internalized moral standards of parents and society.
A struggle among the id, ego, and superego.
common pattern of behavior, often an adaptive coping style when it occurs in moderation, observed in response to a particular situation.
psychosexual stages of development
Psychoanalytic concept of the consequence of phases a person passes during development. Each stage is named for the location on the body where id gratification is maximal at that time.
The fear in young boys that they will be mutilated genitally because of their lust for their mothers.
Obsolete psychodynamic term for a psychological disorder thought to result from an unconscious conflict and the anxiety it causes.
Psychoanalytic theory that emphasizes the role of the ego in development and attributes psychological disorders to failure of the ego to manage impulses and internal conflicts.
Modern development in psychodynamic theory involving the study of how children incorporate the memories and values of people who are close and important to them.
accumulated wisdom of a culture collected and remembered across generations, a psychodynamic concept introduced by Carl Jung.
Technique used to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious. The patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring.
Therapy method in which dream content is examined as symbolic of id impulses and intrapsychic conflict.
Therapist who practices psychanalysis after earning either an M.D. or Ph.D. degree and receiving additional specialized postdoctoral training.
contemporary version of psychoanalysis that still emphasizes unconscious processes and conflicts but is briefer and more focused on specific problems.
Psychoanalytic concept suggesting that clients may seek to relate to the therapist as they do to important authority figures, particularly their parents.
process emphasized in humanistic psychology in which people strive to achieve their highest potential against difficult life experiences.
therapy method in which the client, rather than the counselor, primarily directs the course of discussion, seeking self-discovery and self-responsibility.
unconditioned positive regard
Acceptance by the counselor of the client's feelings and actions without judgement or condemnation.
Explanation of human behavior, based on principles of learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology.
fundamental learning process first described by Ivan Pavlov. An event that automatically elicits a response is paired with another stimulus event that does does not (neutral stimulus). After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that by itself can elicit the desired response.
learning process in which a response maintained by reinforcement in operant conditioning or pairing in classical conditioning decreases when that reinforcement or pairing is removed, also the procedure of removing the reinforcement or pairing.
Early, nonscientific approach to the study of psychology involving systematic attempts to report thoughts and feelings that specific stimuli evoke.
behavior therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation.
array of therapeutic methods based on the principles of behavioral and cognitive science, as well as principles of learning as applied to clinical problems. It considers specific behaviors rather than inferred conflicts as legitimate targets for change.
in operant conditioning, consequences for behavior that strengthen it of increase its frequency. Positive reinforcement involves the contingent delivery of a desired consequence. Negative reinforcement is the contingent escape from an aversive consequence. Unwanted behaviors may result from reinforcement of those behaviors or the failure to reinforce desired behaviors.
in operant conditioning, the development of a new response by reinforcing successively more similar versions of that response. Both desirable and undesirable behaviors may be learned in this manner.