is the process of discovering unifying principles in
data obtained from the ocean.
a conditional explanation that can be verified or falsified.
overarching models of the world that guide our interpretation of events
old observation doesn't explain new observations very well
What do stars have to do with the ocean?
everything on earth formed by stars (even oceans), every chemical element heavier than hydrogen was released by stars
When will sun die?
5 millions years
Area of Earth's ocean
71% of earth's surface (361.1 million km^2)
Average ocean depth
3, 096 ft
1, 370 km^2
Who was pacific ocean discovered by and when?
Vasco de Balboa, 1513ce
first calculation of Earth's circumference
125, 20 mi
land periodically sank & rose, causing ocean to cover land and recede again
produced first world atlas
First to reach North America
Ferinand Magellan was first...
to travel around the world
how north or south you are
how east or west you are
John Harrison competed to make...
best spring driven clock for sailing
James cook discovered...
The Challenger Expedition
5,000 species discovered
precise and easily comparable, good bench marks for measuring change
measuring of how likely something is, high degree of scientific certainty
1. Simulate real environmental systems
2. Can be physical or mathematical, Can be predictive
3. Provide heuristic information (suggestions of how things MIGHT
be) (heuristic = Of or relating to a usually speculative formulation serving as a guide in the
investigation or solution of a problem )
4. Are influenced by the data they are based on and therefore
could be flawed if the data is wrong ("garbage in, garbage out"
5. Are influenced by researchers' assumptions and can be biased
to some degree
6. Models tend to be adjusted and refined over time, or discarded
and replaced by beer models
Beginning of the universe was...
114 billion years ago
How did water and water vapor form on early Earth?
1. The Sun stripped away Earth's first atmosphere
2. Gases, including water vapor, released by the process of
outgassing, replaced the first atmosphere.
3. Water vapor in the atmosphere condensed into clouds.
divides Atlantic and Indian Oceans
20° east longitude
divides Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
67 ° west longitude
divides Indian and Pacific Oceans
150 ° east longitude
Arctic Ocean studies by...
The Cold-War and nuclear submarines