Chapter 24

Created by EngineFD 

Upgrade to
remove ads

Quiz 2

1) What is macroevolution?

A) evolution as it occurs on a large scale
B) it is a synonym for "stabilizing selection"
C) population-level changes in gene frequencies
D) a uniform change in the rate and pattern of evolution
E) change on the subspecies level

A) evolution as it occurs on a large scale

2) Which is one way that the skulls of adult chimpanzees and humans differ?

A) Adult chimpanzees have a less angled skull.
B) Adult chimpanzees have less massive jaws.
C) Adult chimpanzees have heavier brow ridges.
D) Adult chimpanzees have flatter faces.
E) Adult chimpanzees have rounded faces.

C) Adult chimpanzees have heavier brow ridges.

3) "Allometric" growth refers to

A) the retention of juvenile characteristics in the adult.
B) growth in height.
C) large genetic changes.
D) the variation in growth rate of various parts of the body.
E) growth in girth.

D) the variation in growth rate of various parts of the body.

4 Variations in allometric growth patterns demonstrate how

A) relative large genetic change can have minor impact on phenotype.
B) relative small genetic change can have a major impact on phenotype.
C) chimpanzees and humans could not have a common ancestor.
D) adult chimpanzees are basically juvenile humans that have gained the ability to reproduce.
E) differences in the fetal skulls of chimpanzees and humans lead to very similar adult skulls.

B) relative small genetic change can have a major impact on phenotype.

5) The fetal skulls of chimpanzees and humans both have

A) massive jaws.
B) heavy brow ridges.
C) small jaws.
D) sharp angular skulls.
E) three eyes.

C) small jaws.

6) The biological species concept is not useful for organisms known only from fossils because

A) fossils are rarely preserved well enough to distinguish species based on morphology.
B) it is not possible to test reproductive isolation in fossil forms.
C) it is not possible to infer the types of habitats occupied by fossil forms before their extinction.
D) in examining fossil organisms, it is not possible to distinguish males from females.
E) the fossil record can only be used for studying anagenesis, but not cladogenesis.

B) it is not possible to test reproductive isolation in fossil forms.

7) The largest unit in which gene flow can readily occur is a

A) population.
B) species.
C) genus.
D) hybrid.
E) phylum.

B) species.

8) Bird guides once listed the myrtle warbler and Audubon's warbler as distinct species. Recently, these birds have been classified as eastern and western forms of a single species, the yellow-rumped warbler. Which of the following pieces of evidence, if true, would be cause for this reclassification?

A) The two forms are observed to interbreed successfully where their habitats overlap.
B) The two forms live in similar habitats.
C) The two forms have many genes in common.
D) The two forms have similar food requirements.
E) The two forms are very similar in coloration.

A) The two forms are observed to interbreed successfully where their habitats overlap.

9) Males of different species of the fruit fly Drosophila that live in the same parts of the Hawaiian islands have different elaborate courtship rituals that involve fighting other males and stylized movements that attract females. What type of reproductive isolation does this represent?

A) habitat isolation
B) temporal isolation
C) behavioral isolation
D) gametic isolation
E) postzygotic barriers

C) behavioral isolation

10) Which of the following factors would not contribute to allopatric speciation?

A) A population becomes geographically isolated from the parent population.
B) The separated population is small, and genetic drift occurs.
C) The isolated population is exposed to different selection pressures than the ancestral population.
D) Different mutations begin to distinguish the gene pools of the separated populations.
E) Gene flow between the two populations is extensive.

E) Gene flow between the two populations is extensive.

11) Plant species A has a diploid number of 12. Plant species B has a diploid number of 16. A new species, C, arises as an allopolyploid from A and B. The likely diploid number for species C would probably be

A) 12.
B) 14.
C) 16.
D) 28.
E) 56.

D) 28.

12) Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis are plants that do not hybridize in nature but can be readily crossed in the laboratory to produce fertile offspring. Which of the following is least likely to keep the gene pools of these two plants separate in nature?

A) gametic incompatibility
B) different attractiveness to pollinators
C) different ecological niches
D) different geographic ranges
E) seasonal differences in flowering

A) gametic incompatibility

13) A genetic change that caused a certain Hox gene to be expressed along the tip of a vertebrate limb bud instead of farther back made possible the evolution of the tetrapod limb. This type of change is illustrative of

A) the influence of environment on an individual's development.
B) paedomorphosis, or retention of ancestral juvenile structures in an adult organism.
C) a change in a developmental gene or in its regulation that altered the spatial organization of body parts.
D) punctuated equilibrium.
E) the origin of a new species due to allopolyploidy.

C) a change in a developmental gene or in its regulation that altered the spatial organization of body parts.

14) Which of the following applies to both anagenesis and cladogenesis?

A) branching
B) increased diversity
C) speciation
D) more species
E) adaptive radiation

C) speciation

15) Which of the following statements about species, as defined by the biological species concept, is (are) correct?

I. Biological species are defined by reproductive isolation.
II. Biological species are the model used for grouping extinct forms of life.
III. The biological species is the largest unit of population in which successful
reproduction is possible.

A) I only
B) II only
C) I and III
D) II and III
E) I, II, and III

C) I and III

I. Biological species are defined by reproductive isolation.

III. The biological species is the largest unit of population in which successful
reproduction is possible.

16) What is generally true of two sibling species?

A) They shared a common ancestor recently in evolutionary time.
B) Genes are unable to pass from one sibling species' gene pool to the other's.
C) They are unable to produce hybrid offspring upon interbreeding.
D) Their reproductive isolation from each other is complete.
E) They are the result of anagenesis.

A) They shared a common ancestor recently in evolutionary time.

17) Which of the various species concepts identifies species based on the degree of genetic exchange between their gene pools?

A) phylogenetic
B) ecological
C) biological
D) morphological
E) paleontological

C) biological

18) For which two species concepts are anatomical features the primary criterion for determining species identities?

1. biological
2. ecological
3. morphological
4. phylogenetic
5. paleontological

A) 1 and 2
B) 1 and 3
C) 2 and 3
D) 3 and 5
E) 4 and 5

D) 3 and 5

3. morphological
5. paleontological

19) A biologist discovers two populations of wolf spiders whose members appear identical. Members of one population are found in the leaf litter deep within a woods. Members of the other population are found in the grass at the edge of the woods. The biologist decides to designate the members of the two populations as two separate species. Which species concept is this biologist most closely utilizing?

A) ecological
B) biological
C) morphological
D) paleontological
E) phylogenetic

A) ecological

20) What was the species concept used by Linnaeus?

A) biological
B) morphological
C) paleontological
D) ecological
E) phylogenetic

B) morphological

21) You are confronted with a box of preserved grasshoppers of various species that are new to science and have not been described. Your assignment is to separate them into species. There is no accompanying information as to where or when they were collected. Which species concept will you have to use?

A) biological
B) phylogenetic
C) ecological
D) paleontological
E) morphological

E) morphological

22) Some species of Anopheles mosquito live in brackish water, some in running fresh water, and others in stagnant water. What type of reproductive barrier is most obviously separating these different species?

A) habitat isolation
B) temporal isolation
C) behavioral isolation
D) gametic isolation
E) postzygotic isolation

A) habitat isolation

23) Which of the following must occur during a period of geographic isolation in order for two sibling species to remain genetically distinct following their geographic reunion in the same home range?

A) prezygotic barriers
B) postzygotic barriers
C) ecological isolation
D) reproductive isolation
E) temporal isolation

D) reproductive isolation

Use the following options to answer the following questions. For each description of reproductive isolation, select the option that best describes it.

24) two species of orchids with different floral anatomy

A. gametic
B. temporal
C. behavioral
D. habitat
E. mechanical

E. mechanical

Use the following options to answer the following questions. For each description of reproductive isolation, select the option that best describes it.

25) two species of trout that breed in different seasons

A. gametic
B. temporal
C. behavioral
D. habitat
E. mechanical

B. temporal

Use the following options to answer the following questions. For each description of reproductive isolation, select the option that best describes it.

26) two species of meadowlarks with different mating songs

A. gametic
B. temporal
C. behavioral
D. habitat
E. mechanical

C. behavioral

Use the following options to answer the following questions. For each description of reproductive isolation, select the option that best describes it.

27) two species of garter snakes live in the same region, but one lives in water and the other lives on land

A. gametic
B. temporal
C. behavioral
D. habitat
E. mechanical

D. habitat

Use the following options to answer the following questions. For each description of reproductive isolation, select the option that best describes it.

28) two species of pine shed their pollen at different times

A. gametic
B. temporal
C. behavioral
D. habitat
E. mechanical

B. temporal

Use the following options to answer the following questions. For each description of reproductive isolation, select the option that best describes it.

29) mating fruit flies recognize the appearance, odor, tapping motions, and sounds of members of their own species, but not of other species

A. gametic
B. temporal
C. behavioral
D. habitat
E. mechanical

C. behavioral

Use the following options to answer the following questions. For each description of reproductive isolation, select the option that best describes it.

30) the scarlet oak is adapted to moist bottomland, whereas the black oak is adapted to dry upland soils

A. gametic
B. temporal
C. behavioral
D. habitat
E. mechanical

D. habitat

31) Two species of frogs belonging to the same genus occasionally mate, but the offspring do not complete development. What is the mechanism for keeping the two frog species separate?

A) the postzygotic barrier called hybrid inviability
B) the postzygotic barrier called hybrid breakdown
C) the prezygotic barrier called hybrid sterility
D) gametic isolation
E) adaptation

A) the postzygotic barrier called hybrid inviability

32) Theoretically, the production of sterile mules by interbreeding between female horses and male donkeys should

A) result in the extinction of one of the two parental species.
B) cause convergent evolution.
C) reinforce postzygotic barriers between horses and donkeys.
D) weaken the intrinsic reproductive barriers between horses and donkeys.
E) eventually result in the formation of a single species from the two parental species.

C) reinforce postzygotic barriers between horses and donkeys.

33) The biological species concept is inadequate for grouping

A) plants.
B) parasites.
C) asexual organisms.
D) animals that migrate.
E) sympatric populations.

C) asexual organisms.

34) Races of humans are unlikely to evolve extensive differences in the future for which of the following reasons?

I. The environment is unlikely to change.
II. Human evolution is complete.
III. The human races are incompletely isolated.

A) I only
B) III only
C) I and II only
D) II and III only
E) I, II, and III

B) III only

III. The human races are incompletely isolated.

35) The Hawaiian islands are a great showcase of evolution because of intense

A) ecological isolation and sympatric speciation.
B) adaptive radiation and allopatric speciation.
C) allopolyploidy and sympatric speciation.
D) cross-specific mating and reinforcement.
E) hybrid vigor and allopatric speciation.

B) adaptive radiation and allopatric speciation.

36) All of the following have contributed to the diversity of organisms on the Hawaiian archipelago except that

A) the islands are distant from the mainland.
B) multiple invasions have occurred.
C) adaptive radiation has occurred.
D) the islands are very young in geologic time.
E) environmental conditions differ from one island to the next.

D) the islands are very young in geologic time.

37) The Galapagos archipelago appeared about 2 million years ago, when submerged volcanoes (seamounts) rose above the ocean's surface. A single hypothetical colonization event introduced a species of finch to one island in the distant past. Today, several islands in the archipelago contain unique species of finches. What must have happened following the initial colonization event to account for the current situation?

1. cladogenesis
2. anagenesis
3. allopatric speciation
4. adaptive radiation

A) 1 and 3
B) 1 and 4
C) 2 and 3
D) 1, 3, and 4
E) 2, 3, and 4

D) 1, 3, and 4

1. cladogenesis
3. allopatric speciation
4. adaptive radiation

38) A rapid method of speciation that has been important in the history of flowering plants is

A) genetic drift.
B) paedomorphosis.
C) a mutation in the gene controlling the timing of flowering.
D) behavioral isolation.
E) polyploidy.

E) polyploidy.

39) Which example below will most likely guarantee that two closely related species will remain distinct biological species?

A) colonization of new habitats
B) convergent evolution
C) hybridization
D) geographic isolation from one another
E) reproductive isolation from one another

E) reproductive isolation from one another

40) Autopolyploidy is a speciation process that begins with an event during

A) habitat selection.
B) copulation.
C) meiosis.
D) embryonic development.
E) hybridization.

C) meiosis.

41) Which of the following is a way that allopolyploidy can most directly cause speciation?

A) It can improve success in island habitats.
B) It can overcome hybrid sterility.
C) It can change the mating behavior of animals.
D) It can generate geographic barriers.
E) It can produce heterochrony.

B) It can overcome hybrid sterility.

42) A new plant species formed from the hybridization between a plant with a diploid number of 16 and a plant with a diploid number of 12 would probably have a gamete chromosome number of

A) 12.
B) 14.
C) 16.
D) 22.
E) 28.

B) 14.

43) Plant species A has a diploid number of 28. Plant species B has a diploid number of 14. A new, sexually reproducing species C arises as an allopolyploid from hybridization of A and B. The diploid number of C would probably be

A) 14.
B) 21.
C) 28.
D) 42.
E) 63.

D) 42.

44) A defining characteristic of allopatric speciation is

A) the appearance of new species in the midst of old ones.
B) asexually reproducing populations.
C) geographic isolation.
D) artificial selection.
E) large populations.

C) geographic isolation.

45) In the 5-6 million years that the hominid lineage has been diverging from its common ancestor with the great apes, dozens of hominid species have arisen, often with several species coexisting in time and space. As recently as 30,000 years ago, Homo sapiens coexisted with Homo neanderthalensis. Both species had large brains and advanced intellects. That these traits were common to both species is most easily explained by which of the following?

A) species selection
B) uniformitarianism
C) sexual selection
D) A and B only
E) A, B, and C

A) species selection

46) According to the concept of punctuated equilibrium, the "sudden" appearance of a new species in the fossil record means that

A) the species is now extinct.
B) speciation occurred instantaneously.
C) speciation occurred in one generation.
D) speciation occurred rapidly in geologic time.
E) the species will consequently have a relatively short existence, compared with other species.

D) speciation occurred rapidly in geologic time.

47) Many species of snakes lay eggs, but in the forests of northern Minnesota where growing seasons are short, only live-bearing snake species are present. This trend toward species that perform live birth is an example of

A) natural selection.
B) sexual selection.
C) species selection.
D) goal direction in evolution.
E) directed selection.

C) species selection.

48) Which of the following would be a position held by an adherent of the punctuated equilibrium theory?

A) A new species forms most of its unique features as it comes into existence and then changes little for the duration of its existence.
B) One should expect to find many transitional fossils left by organisms in the process of forming new species.
C) Given enough time, most existing species will gradually evolve into new species.
D) Natural selection is unimportant as a mechanism of evolution.
E) Most speciation is anagenetic.

A) A new species forms most of its unique features as it comes into existence and then changes little for the duration of its existence.

49) Speciation

A) occurs at such a slow pace that no one has ever observed the emergence of new species.
B) occurs only by the accumulation of genetic change over vast expanses of time.
C) must begin with the geographic isolation of a small, frontier population.
D) proceeds at a uniform tempo across all taxa.
E) occurs via anagenesis and cladogenesis, but only the latter increases biodiversity.

E) occurs via anagenesis and cladogenesis, but only the latter increases biodiversity.

50) The origin of a new plant species by hybridization coupled with nondisjunction is an example of

A) allopatric speciation.
B) sympatric speciation.
C) autopolyploidy.
D) heterochrony.
E) habitat selection.

B) sympatric speciation.

51) Which of the following would be an example of macroevolution?

A) evolution of antibiotic resistance in a strain of E. coli
B) evolution of polymorphism in Papilio dardanus, with each morph mimicking a different protected butterfly
C) evolution of modern humans, Homo sapiens, from australopithecine ancestors
D) evolution of insecticide resistance in populations of insect pests treated through the years with DDT
E) replacement of a melanin-poor morph by a melanin-rich morph over many generations under conditions of increased UV exposure

C) evolution of modern humans, Homo sapiens, from australopithecine ancestors

The following questions are based on the observation that several dozen different proteins comprise the prokaryotic flagellum and its attachment to the prokaryotic cell wall, producing an incredibly complex structure.

52) If the complex protein assemblage of the prokaryotic flagellum arose by the same general processes as those of the complex eyes of advanced molluscs (such as squids), then

A) natural selection cannot account for the rise of the prokaryotic flagellum.
B) ancestral versions of this protein assemblage were either less functional, or had different functions, than modern prokaryotic flagella.
C) science should accept the conclusion that neither of these structures could have arisen by evolution.
D) we can conclude that both of these structures must have arisen through the direct action of an intelligent "designer."
E) Both A and C are true.

B) ancestral versions of this protein assemblage were either less functional, or had different functions, than modern prokaryotic flagella.

The following questions are based on the observation that several dozen different proteins comprise the prokaryotic flagellum and its attachment to the prokaryotic cell wall, producing an incredibly complex structure.

53) If one organ is an exaptation of another organ, then what must be true of these two organs?

A) They are both vestigial organs.
B) They are homologous organs.
C) They are undergoing convergent evolution.
D) They are found together in the same hybrid species.
E) They have the same function.

B) They are homologous organs.

The following questions are based on the observation that several dozen different proteins comprise the prokaryotic flagellum and its attachment to the prokaryotic cell wall, producing an incredibly complex structure.

54) Which of the following examples would be most likely to result in macroevolution?

A) a change in a regulatory gene, which has a major and adaptive impact on morphology
B) a point mutation deep within an intron
C) DNA-DNA hybridization
D) gene flow
E) genetic drift involving a trait that seems to exhibit neutral variation

A) a change in a regulatory gene, which has a major and adaptive impact on morphology

The following questions are based on the observation that several dozen different proteins comprise the prokaryotic flagellum and its attachment to the prokaryotic cell wall, producing an incredibly complex structure.

55) A hypothetical mutation in a squirrel population produces organisms with eight legs rather than four. Further, these mutant squirrels survive, successfully invade new habitats, and eventually give rise to a new species. The initial event giving rise to extra legs would be a good example of

A) punctuated equilibrium.
B) species selection.
C) habitat selection.
D) changes in homeotic genes.
E) allometry.

D) changes in homeotic genes.

The following questions are based on the observation that several dozen different proteins comprise the prokaryotic flagellum and its attachment to the prokaryotic cell wall, producing an incredibly complex structure.

56) The existence of evolutionary trends, such as increasing body sizes among horse species, is evidence that

A) a larger volume-to-surface area ratio is beneficial to all mammals.
B) an unseen guiding force is at work.
C) evolution always tends toward increased complexity or increased size.
D) in particular environments, similar adaptations can be beneficial in more than one species.
E) evolution generally progresses toward some predetermined goal.

D) in particular environments, similar adaptations can be beneficial in more than one species.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set