Nuclear shape is based on:
cell shape and the nuclear lamina
(not nuclear matrix)
Internal space of RER sacs
Lysozomes contain ________________.
Lysozyme proteins (3):
synthesized in the RER
release their enzymes into the extracellular environment
involved in digestion process
Heterophagy vs. Autophagy
Hetero - lysosomal digestion of extracellular substances (from outside)
Auto - lysosomal digestion of intracellular substances (from within)
Components of the NUCLEUS (4):
1) nuclear envelope
4) Nuclear matrix
1) intracellular vesicles containing acid hydrolases
2) Enzymes synthesized in RER and packages by Golgi.
3) pH maintained at 5.0 (by H+ pumps)
4) Function: digestion
5) Special membrane resistant to enzymes (lyso-bisphosphatidic)
A cell with extensive SER functions in:
Lipid (steroid) synthesis
Functions of Golgi (4)
1) Transfer/shuttle vesicles - RER side
2) Condensing/secretory vesicles - plasma membrane side
3) Post-trans modification (glycosilation, sulfation, phosphorylation, and some protein proteolysis)
4) Packaging, concentration, and storage
3 levels of Golgi cisternae
1) Convex (cis) face = forming or entry
3) Concave (trans) face = mature of exit
F(cis) . . ((cc . . M (trans) secretory vesicles
Mitochondria have a _________ membrane, in which the space between is filled with fluid similar to ________, while the space within is known as __________.
Infoldings of mitochondrial inner membrane
Peroxisomes (3 general composition)
1) Spherical, membrane limited organelles
2) Contain 40+ oxidative enzymes (CATALASE)
3) Crystalline nucleoid in some species
Peroxisome function (2)
1) Catabolism of long-chain fatty acids
2) removal of excess hydrogen peroxide from cytosol (via catalase)
2 H2O2 to 2 H2O + O2
Where does mitochondrial DNA come from?
Cytoskeleton is made of (3):
Cytoskeleton function (2):
Structural support and shape
Movement (of organelles and vesicles, cilia/flagella, or entire cell)
Microtubules are _______, have ______ ends, are generated from organizing centers known as __________, and are found commonly in _________ and ________.
Hollow cylinders made of tubulin
mitotic structures (aster fibers)
Microfilaments are found in ________, are highly concentrated in cell _________, are made of _________, and common examples are ____________.
bundles (2D networks/3D gels)
Intermediate filaments are _______-like fibers, found in _______, provide ________, are commonly associated with ________, and are found in nucleus as __________.
cell junctions (desmesomes and hemidesmesomes)
3 common INCLUSIONS
White fat is ________, while brown fat is ______.
Multilocular (generate heat)
Four basic tissues:
Epithelium is usually a ________ of cells with little _________, typically line a ________, are _________, highly _______, layered; thus, usually __________.
organized (with basal lamina and underlying CT)
Epithelium derives from which primary germ layer?
7 functions of Epithelium
Protective (epidermis, oral mucosa)
Absorptive (GI lining)
Secretory (GI lining, glands)
Transport (kidney, salivary glands)
Excretory (kidney, sweat glands)
Sensory (eye and ear)
2 subdivisions of Epithelium:
Surface epi (lining membranes)
Glandular epi (endo/exocrine glands)