Chapter 11 Nervous System and Nervous Tissue

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Which type of neuron would connect to a muscle and would have its cell body inside the spinal cord in its relfex arc?

Multi-polar neuron

Which neuron ia rare andwould be found in the retina of the eye?

Bipolar neuron

Which neuron is a sensory neuron found in a reflex arc?

unipolar neuron

What neron is the most common in the body and is the major type of neuron in the CNS?

Multi-polar neuron

Which neuron is common only in dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord and sensory ganglia of cranial nerves?

Unipolar neurons

Neurotransmitters are released at the ________.

Axon terminal

The rough ER of the cell.

Nissal Bodies

Receptive or input region of the neuron.

Dendrites

Conducting region of the neuron (generate nerve impuleses)

Axon

Period during which the neuron cannot respond to a second stimulus, no matter how strong.

absolute refractory period

The interior of the cell becomes less negative due to an influx of sodium ions

depolarization

The specific period during which potassium ions diffuse out of the neuron due to a change in membrane permeability.

repolarization

Also called a nerve impulse transmitted by axons.

action potentials (AP)

An exceptionally strong stimulus can trigger a response.

relative refactory period

Direct-acting neurotransmitters ________.
A)

require cyclic AMP
B)

mediate very slow responses
C)

open ion channels to provoke rapid responses
D)

act through second messengers

C)

open ion channels to provoke rapid responses

Which of the following is correct relative to Ohm's law?
A)

I = R / V
B)

Current is directly proportional to the voltage.
C)

R = V + I
D)

The more intense the stimulus, the more voltage changes.

B)

Current is directly proportional to the voltage

Ciliated CNS neuroglia that play an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid are called ________.
A)

ependymal cells
B)

Schwann cells
C)

oligodendrocytes
D)

astrocytes

A)

ependymal cells

The sheath of Schwann is also called the ________.
A)

myelin sheath
B)

axolemma
C)

neurilemma
D)

white matter

C) Neurilemma

Bipolar neurons are commonly ________.
A)

motor neurons
B)

called neuroglial cells
C)

found in ganglia
D)

found in the retina of the eye

D) in the retina of the eye

An excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle is ________.

C)

acetylcholine

A neural circuit in which a single impulse is transmitted over and over is a ________.

C)

reverberating circuit

The period after an initial stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the ________.
A)

resting period
B)

repolarization
C)

depolarization
D)

absolute refractory period

D) absolute refractory period

A neuronal circuit that concentrates or directs a large number of incoming impulses to a rather small number of neurons is called a(n) ________.
A)

diverging circuit
B)

oscillating circuit
C)

converging circuit
D)

parallel circuit

converging circuit

Which of the following is not a structural feature of a neuron?
A)

synaptic cleft
B)

Nissl bodies
C)

dendrites
D)

axon

synaptic cleft

The part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called a(n) ________.
A)

axon
B)

dendrite
C)

neurolemma
D)

Schwann cell

a) axon

The chemically gated channel, NMDA, allows ________ ions entry into the nerve cell.
A)

Na+
B)

K+
C)

Ca2+
D)

Cl-

C)Ca2+

The point at which an impulse from one nerve cell is communicated to another nerve cell is the ________.
A)

cell body
B)

synapse
C)

receptor
D)

effector

B0 syanpse

The role of acetylcholinesterase is to ________.
A)

act as a transmitting agent
B)

amplify or enhance the effect of ACh
C)

destroy ACh a brief period after its release by the axonal endings
D)

stimulate the production of serotonin

c)destroy ACh a brief period after its release by the axonal endings

Which of the following is not a function of the autonomic nervous system?
A)

innervation of smooth muscle of the digestive tract
B)

innervation of cardiac muscle
C)

innervation of glands
D)

innervation of skeletal muscle

d) intervention of skeletal muscle

Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system are called ________.
A)

nuclei
B)

nerves
C)

ganglia
D)

tracts

c) ganglia

The term central nervous system refers to the ________.
A)

autonomic nervous system
B)

brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
C)

brain and spinal cord
D)

spinal cord and spinal nerves

c) brain and spinal cord

The substance released at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse is called a(n) ________.
A)

ion
B)

cholinesterase
C)

neurotransmitter
D)

biogenic amine

c) neurotransmitter

A neuron that has as its primary function the job of connecting other neurons is called a(n) ________.
A)

efferent neuron
B)

afferent neuron
C)

association neuron
D)

glial cell

c) associatino neuron

Saltatory conduction is made possible by ________.
A)

the myelin sheath
B)

large nerve fibers
C)

diphasic impulses
D)

erratic transmission of nerve impulses

a) the myelin sheath

Which of these ions is actively transported through the cell membrane to establish a resting potential?
A)

Na
B)

Cl
C)

Mg
D)

Ca

A) Na

The part of the neuron that normally receives stimuli is called ________.
A)

an axon
B)

a dendrite
C)

a neurolemma
D)

a Schwann cell

b) the dendrite

Choose the statement that is most correct about membrane potential.
A)

Voltage would be measured by placing two electrodes on the exterior of the axon.
B)

Voltage would be measured by placing one electrode inside the membrane and another outside the membrane.
C)

Voltage would be measured by placing one electrode on one end of the axon and another electrode on the other end.
D)

Voltage would be measured by placing one electrode on the axon and grounding the other electrode

B)

Voltage would be measured by placing one electrode inside the membrane and another outside the membrane

The sodium-potassium pump ________.
A)

pumps three sodium ions outside the cell and two potassium ions inside
B)

pumps two sodium ions outside the cell and three potassium ions inside
C)

pumps three sodium ions inside the cell and two potassium ions outside
D)

pumps two sodium ions inside the cell and three potassium ions outside

A)

pumps three sodium ions outside the cell and two potassium ions inside

An action potential ________.
A)

is essential for impulse propagation
B)

involves the influx of negative ions to depolarize the membrane
C)

is initiated by potassium ion movement
D)

involves impulse propagation dependent on chemically gated ion channels

a) is essential for impulse propogation

Select the correct statement about synapses.
A)

Cells with interconnected cytoplasm are chemically coupled.
B)

The release of neurotransmitter molecules gives cells the property of being electrically coupled.
C)

Neurotransmitter receptors are located on the axons of cells.
D)

The synaptic cleft prevents an impulse from being transmitted directly from one neuron to another.

D) The synaptic cleft prevents an impulse from being transmitted directly from one neuron to another.

Which of the following is a good example of a neuromodulator?
A)

acetylcholine
B)

any protein
C)

any carbohydrate
D)

nitric oxide

D) nitric oxide

Which group of fibers spreads impulses at up to 1 meter per second?
A)

group A fibers
B)

group B fibers
C)

group C fibers
D)

group D fibers

c) group C fibers

The sympathetic and parasympathetic are subdivisions of the ________.
A)

central nervous system
B)

voluntary nervous system
C)

autonomic nervous system
D)

somatic nervous system

C) the autonomic nervous system

Ependymal cells ________.
A)

are a type of neuron
B)

are a type of macrophage
C)

are the most numerous of the neuroglia
D)

help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid

D) help to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid

Neuroglia that control the chemical environment around neurons by buffering potassium and recapturing neurotransmitters are ________.
A)

astrocytes
B)

oligodendrocytes
C)

microglia
D)

Schwann cells

a) asctrocytes

Schwann cells are functionally similar to ________.
A)

ependymal cells
B)

microglia
C)

oligodendrocytes
D)

astrocytes

c0 oligodendrocytes

Immediately after an action potential has peaked, which cellular gates open?
A)

sodium
B)

chloride
C)

calcium
D)

potassium

d) potassium

Nerve cell adhesion molecules (N-CAMs) ________.
A)

release nerve growth factor
B)

are found on "pathfinder" neurons
C)

are crucial in the production of neurotransmitters
D)

are crucial for the development of neural connections

D)are crucial for the development of neural connections

An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is associated with ________.
A)

a change in sodium ion permeability
B)

hyperpolarization
C)

opening of voltage-regulated channels
D)

lowering the threshold for an action potential to occur

b)hyperpolarization

Which of the following will occur when an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is being generated on the dendritic membrane?
A)

Specific sodium gates will open.
B)

Specific potassium gates will open.
C)

Sodium gates will open first, then close as potassium gates open.
D)

A single type of channel will open, permitting simultaneous flow of sodium and potassium.

d)A single type of channel will open, permitting simultaneous flow of sodium and potassium.

When a sensory neuron is excited by some form of energy, the resulting graded potential is called a(n) ________.
A)

postsynaptic potential
B)

excitatory potential
C)

action potential
D)

generator potential

d)generator potential

All of the following are true of graded potentials except that they ________.
A)

are short-lived
B)

can form on receptor endings
C)

increase amplitude as they move away from the stimulus point
D)

can be called postsynaptic potentials

c) increase amplitude as they move away from the stimulus point

________ is an indolamine.
A)

Dopamine
B)

Epinephrine
C)

Serotonin
D)

Tyrosine

C) serotonin

A second nerve impulse cannot be generated until ________.
A)

the membrane potential has been reestablished
B)

the Na ions have been pumped back into the cell
C)

proteins have been resynthesized
D)

all sodium gates are closed

a) the membrane potential has been reestablished

In what way does the interior surface of a cell membrane of a resting (nonconducting) neuron differ from the external environment? The interior is ________.
A)

positively charged and contains less sodium
B)

negatively charged and contains less sodium
C)

negatively charged and contains more sodium
D)

positively charged and contains more sodium

negatively charged and contains less sodium

If a motor neuron in the body were stimulated by an electrode placed about midpoint along the length of the axon ________.
A)

the impulse would move to the axon terminal only
B)

muscle contraction would occur
C)

the impulse would spread bidirectionally
D)

the impulse would move to the axon terminal only, and the muscle contraction would occur

C)

the impulse would spread bidirectionally

Neurons may be classified according to several characteristics. Which of the following is correct?
A)

Group A fibers are mostly somatic sensory and motor and are the smallest in diameter.
B)

Group B fibers are highly myelinated and have the highest conduction velocities.
C)

Group C fibers are not capable of saltatory conduction.
D)

A small cross-sectional area allows shorter conduction times.

C)

Group C fibers are not capable of saltatory conduction.

Select the correct statement about serial processing.
A)

Spinal reflexes are an example of serial processing.
B)

Input travels along several different pathways.
C)

Smells are processed by serial pathways.
D)

Memories are triggered by serial processing.

A) spinal relfexes are an example of serial processing

That part of the nervous system that is voluntary and conducts impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles is the ________ nervous system.

somatic

________ are found in the CNS and bind axons and blood vessels to each other.

astrocytes

A gap between Schwann cells in the peripheral system is called a(n)

node of Ranvier

________ law is the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance.

Ohm's

The synapse more common in embryonic nervous tissue than in adults is the ________.

electrical synapse

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