Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Gene therapy is a modern approach to preventing infectious disease

False

Modern biologists had to revise Linnaeus's system of taxonomy because __________.

he grouped all organisms into only two categories

Which of the following fields of modern microbiology is NOT directly concerned with the genetic characteristics of a cell?

bioremediation

Inserting a gene from the hepatitis B virus into yeast so that the yeast produces a viral protein is an example of

genetic engineering

All of the following individuals showed that cleanliness played a role in human disease

Nightingale, Semmelweis and Lister

What did the work of Lister and Ehrlich have in common?

They both explored the use of chemicals in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases

The study of the body's defenses against pathogens is called

immunology.

The study of the causation of disease is known as:

etiology.

Put the following events in the history of microbiology in order, from the earliest to the latest:
I. Leeuwenhoek observes microbes using a microscope.
II. Pasteur disproves spontaneous generation.
III. Woese discovers the archaea.
IV. Fracastoro proposes that "germs" cause disease.
V. Ehrlich discovers the first "magic bullet."

IV, I, II, V, III

Which of the following questions largely stimulated the research of microbes during what is known as the Golden Age of Microbiology?

What causes disease, and is spontaneous generation of microbes possible?

Robert Koch was involved in research on all of the following topics

-the cause of tuberculosis
-the cause of anthrax.
- development of a method to prove the cause of an infectious disease.
-techniques for isolating microbes in the laboratory.

The term __________ refers to an infection acquired in a health care setting.

nosocomial

Microorganisms characterized by the absence of a nucleus are called:

prokaryotes.

the following are correct pairing?

-algae: aquatic and marine habitats
-viruses: acellular parasites
-prokaryotes: no nuclei
-fungi: cell walls

The study of the occurrence, distribution, and spread of disease is known as:

epidemiology.

the following are the observation Pasteur made concerning the fermentation of grape juice?

-yeast can grow in sealed or open flasks of grape juice.
-bacteria produce acid in grape juice.
-yeast cells can grow and reproduce in grape juice.
-yeast can grow with or without oxygen.

The microbial production of alcohol from sugar is known as

fermentation

The following are the example of a fungus.

mushrooms
molds
yeasts

the following are characteristic of protozoa

they are the microbes most similar to plants

The first true vaccine protected against disease caused by a ________ pathogen.

viral

Put the following steps of Koch's postulates in order: a. The suspected infectious agent must be isolated and grown outside the host. b. The suspected infectious agent causes the disease when it is introduced to a healthy, susceptible animal. c. The suspected infectious agent must be found in every case of the disease. d. The suspected infectious agent must be found in the diseased experimental host.

c, a, b, d

Koch's postulates can be used only to prove the causes of infectious diseases.

True

Which of the following scientists provided evidence in favor of the concept of spontaneous generation?

Needham

Which of the following NOT true for both hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection?

The disease is prevented by vaccination

What do hepatitis A and hepatitis B have in common?

Both can be prevented by a vaccine.

What organ is most affected by hepatitis B virus?

liver

Microbiologists study parasitic worms because __________.

they cause diseases that are diagnosed by finding microscopic eggs in clinical specimens

Whose experiments seemingly proved the existence of a "life force"?

Needham

How are the bacteria and the archaea different from all the other cellular microbes?

They have no nucleus

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of protozoa?

they are the microbes most similar to plants.

Proteins that promote chemical reactions in the cell are called

enzymes.

John Snow's research during a cholera outbreak in London laid the foundation for which of the following branches of microbiology?

both infection control and epidemiology

Joseph Lister reduced the incidence of wound infections in health care settings by using chlorinated lime water.

False

What was the first disease proven to be bacterial in origin?

anthrax

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first person in history to

view protozoa and bacteria

Paul Ehrlich used chemotherapy to treat

syphilis.

Lazzaro Spallanzani was the first scientist to provide evidence disproving the spontaneous generation of microorganisms.

True

The microbes commonly known as ________ are single-celled eukaryotes that are generally motile.

protozoa

The term for the use of microorganisms to restore damaged environments is:

bioremediation

All of the following were involved in developing the germ theory of disease

-Koch.
- Pasteur.
- Snow.
-Fracastoro

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an example of which of the following types of microbes?

fungus

The organisms infecting Martin are unicellular and do not have a nucleus. They are extremely small but can be seen with a light microscope when stained. Which of the following categories of microorganisms would they be classified in?

Bacteria

Martin has cholera, a disease that played a key role in good public health hygiene standards. Snow's research into cholera outbreaks in London provided the foundation for what branches of Microbiology?

Epidemiology

A toxin made by certain strains of Vibrio cholera produce the serious gastrointestinal symptoms and water loss characterized by cholera. The study of that toxin, its biochemistry, and its effect on human cells would be called ______________.

molecular biology

Which of the following scientists was the first to develop a taxonomic system for classifying organisms?

Linnaeus

Semmelweis advocated handwashing as a method of preventing which of the following diseases?

puerperal fever

Which of the following are the characteristic of viruses?

-they are composed of genetic material and protein.
-they are acellular.
-they are smaller than prokaryotic cells.
-they are obligatory parasites

Who was the scientist who first hypothesized that gene sequences could provide new insights into evolutionary relationships between organisms such as microbes?

Pauling

Christian Gram devised a staining technique that divides all bacteria into two groups.

True

the following statements about algae are true

-they provide most of the oxygen on Earth.
-they are a source of food for aquatic and marine animals
-the group includes seaweeds and kelps.
-they are photosynthetic organisms

Which of the following scientists showed that fermentation does not require living cells?

Buchner

The production of human blood-clotting factor by E. coli is an example of bioremediation.

False

Fermentation can occur in the absence of living cells.

True

The work of Lister, Nightingale, and Semmelweis all contributed to controlling infectious disease by

developing methods for reducing nosocomial infections.

A microorganism has the following characteristics: eukaryotic, multicellular, has cell walls, and grows in long filaments. What is its general classification?

fungus

Spallanzani's experiments concerning spontaneous generation were not universally accepted because __________.

he eliminated air from his flasks by sealing them

Which of the following groups of scientists did NOT contribute to research in microbial genetics?

Winogradsky and Beijerinck
Winogradsky studied the microbial recycling of sulfur in the environment, while Beijerinck studied the nitrogen cycle in bacteria.

Robert Koch developed a vaccine to prevent anthrax after identifying the causative agent.

False

All of the following individuals were involved in improving public health in the 19th century

Snow.
Lister.
Semmelweis
Nightingale.

the following are the aspect of Pasteur's experiments to disprove spontaneous generation?

The necks of the flasks he used were bent into an S-shape.
The flasks were free of microbes until they were opened.
He boiled the infusions to kill any microbes present.
The flasks were incubated for very long periods of time.

Which of the following taxonomic kingdoms were recognized by Linnaeus?

plants and animals

Who discovered penicillin?

Fleming

The microbial activity of ________ is responsible for the production of various foods.

both fungi and bacteria

Which of the following statements about fungi is FALSE?

fungi are photosynthetic

What was Leeuwenhoek's contribution to the science of microbiology?

He developed the first microscope

The term __________ means the study of the blood components that fight infection.

serology

Walter Reed proved that a virus causes yellow fever in humans.

True

The term that literally means "against putrefaction" is:

antisepsis.

Who first promulgated the theory of abiogenesis

Aristotle

Who hypothesixed that a bacterial colony arises from a sigle bacterial cell

Robert Koch

Who first hypothesized that medical personnel can infect patients with pathogens

Ignaz Semmelweis

Leeuwenthok described microorganisms as

animalcules

A scientist who studes tha role of microorganisms in the environment is

an enrionmental microbiolgist

The laboratoy of robert Koch contributed the following to the microbiology

-simple staining technique
-use of Petri dishes
-first photomicrograph of bacteria

Louis Pasteur and Eduard Buchner

Biochemistry

Louis Pasteur

-Biotechnology and food microbiology
-Germ theory of disease
'Father of Microbiology"

Martinus Beijerinck and Sergei Winogradsky

Enrironmental microbiology

Robert Koch

Etiology
First photomicrograph of bacteria

Paul Ehrlich

sought a " magic bullet" to destroy pathogens

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

Discover of bacteria
Discover of protozoa

Edward Jenner

Developed smallpox immunization
" founder of antiseptic surgery"

Hans Christian Gram

developed the most widely used bacterial staining technique

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set