Rule of Law
A system in which all people in a society, including governing officials, are subject to legal codes that are applied without bias by independent courts.
Articles of Confederation
The constitution adopted by the second continental congress in 1777. It set up a weak central government consisting of a congress with limited legislative power and virtually no authority over the execution of its laws.
Law passed by the U.S. Congress or state legislatures. Subordinate to constitutional law
Hierarchy of Law
Puts constitutional law above statutory
Plan that called for a stronger national government than the Articles of Confederation, with an independent executive and bicameral legislature whose membership in both houses would be apportioned by state population
New Jersey Plan
Plan that called for amending the Articles of Confederation, rather than abolishing them. Unicameral legislature with equal representation among states, and plural executive appointed by the legislative
Compromise between VA plan and NJ plan-called for a bicameral legislature, and upper house (senate) composed of equal representation, and a lower house (house of representatives) composed of representation from each state in proportion to its population. Slaves only counted as three fifths
A political system with multiple levels of government in which each level has independent authority over some important policy areas
A political system with multiple levels of government in which lower level governments retain full sovereignty and cannot be compelled by the national government to act. U.S under the Articles of Confed.
A political system in which each level of government (national and state) is sovereign in its own sphere of policy authority
A political system in which both levels of government (national and state) are active in nearly all areas of policy and share sovereign authority
A system in which multiple levels of government are active in a given policy area
The relationship between the different levels of government (working against or with each other)
Article I, Section 8 of Constitution. States that congress can pass any laws that are "necessary and proper"
An enumerate power listed in Article I, Section 8 of Constitution that grants Congress to "regulated Commerce with foreign nations and among the several states and Indian tribes."
Money that is distributed to lower-level governments with the purpose of funding general projects
Grants that narrowly define how the funds are to e spent. These grants normally come with conditions that need to be satisfied for the money to be used (ex. certain foods for school lunches)
A principle whereby the national government and lower-level governments cooperate in funding project (ex. interstate funding)
Sums of money transferred to lower-level governments such that as long as the general purpose of the grant is met, the lower level governments are allowed considerable freedom in deciding how the money is spent. (ex. 1995 welfare reform)
An election in which citizens vote directly on a proposition raised by a group of fellow citizens
An election in which citizens vote directly on whether to overturn a bill or a constitutional amendment that has been passed by the the legislature
An election during the term of an elected government official in which citizens vote directly on whether to remove the individual from office
The constitutional or legal authority held by local governments that allows them to government themselves with little nor no interference from the state
A political system in which the national government holds ultimate authority over all areas of policy and over the actions of subunit governments
Those powers not granted to the national government by the Constitution and therefore kept only for the states
A U.S. State has the right to invalidate any federal law which that state has deemed unconstitutional
This stated that the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States or the people.
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon
These three presidents pushed for greater role of federal government in the Great Society Era, 1964-1977
Civil Rights, Voting Rights, Clean Air, Johnson's War on Poverty
Four acts with which Great Society Era presidents instituted-greater role of federal government
Protect states from outside aggression, common standard of environmental and labor laws, protect states from civil war
Why Federalism? 3 answers
Coin money, override federal law
States do not have the right to...
McCulloch v. Maryland
Court case: determined that the state cannot tax national bank of U.S.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Court case: determined that National government can regulate commerce within states
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Collective dilemmas among states, Direct Elections of Senators, National elections that focus on national problems/solutions, Vagueness of Constitution-difficult to check federal power
Four reasons the national government has grown