when electrons move closer to a more electronegative atom,
energy is released
in the reaction C612O6 + 6 O2 + 6 CO2 + 6 H2O,
oxygen becomes reduced
a substrate that is phosphorylated
has an increased reactivity; it is primed to do work
produces approximately three ATP for every NADH that is oxidized
involves the redox reactions of the electron transport chain
involves an ATP synthase located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
depends on chemiosmosis
is the energy source for facultative anaerobes under anaerobic conditions
major reason that glycolysis is not as energy-productive as respiration
pyruvate is more reduced than CO2; it still contains much of the energy from glucose
net products of glycolysis
2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate
electron carrier molecules Q and cytochrome c
are mobile carriers that transfer electrons between the electron carrier complexes
when pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA
a multienzyme complex removes a carboxyl group, transfers electrons to NAD+, & attaches a coenzyme
# of molecules of CO2 that are generated for each molecule of acetyl CoA introduced into the Krebs cycle
ATP production is linked to the proton gradient established by the electron transport chain
ATP synthase location
inner membrane of the mitochondrion (produced in matrix) and cytosol
substrate-level phosphorylation location
cytosol & matrix
when glucose is oxidized to CO2 & water, approximately 40% of its energy is transferred to
from an energetic viewpoint, what do muscle cells in oxygen deprivation gain from the reduction of pyruvate?
ATP & recycled NAD+
glucose, made from 6 radioactively labeled carbon atoms, is fed to yeast cells in the absence of oxygen. how many molecules of radioactive alcohol are formed from each molecule of glucose?
why do fats produce lots of ATP per gram?
they are highly reduced compounds
fats and proteins can be used as fuel in the cell because they
can be converted to intermediates of glycolysis or the Krebs cycle
an allosteric enzyme
inhibited by citrate
pacemaker of glycolysis & respiration.
early enzyme in the glycolytic pathway
substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of ATP formation when glucose is oxidized to CO2 & water?
cyanide is a poison that blocks the passage of electrons along the electron transport chain. Which of the following is a metabolic effect of this poison?
no proton gradient would be produced, and ATP synthesis would cease
enzyme that would use NAD+ as a coenzyme
triose phosphate dehydrogenase
cellular respiration compounds order
glucose -> fructose biphosphate -> glyceraldehyde phosphate -> pyruvate -> CO2 -> acetyl CoA
compound that has the highest free energy (will produce the most ATP when oxidized)
why is glycolysis considered one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved?
nearly universal, is located in the cytosol, & does not involve O2
metabolic function of fermentation
oxidize NADH to NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue in the absence of oxygen
adding of electrons, which reduce amount of positive charge of atom
oxidation of a molecule of FADH2 yields less ATP than a molecule of NADH yields because FADH2
passes its electrons to a transport molecule
role of oxygen in cellular respiration
final electron acceptor for the electron transport chain