Organizational Behavior 1-4

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MBA students may get by with

Technical and quantitative skills the first couple of years out of school but soon, leadership and communications skills come to the forefront in distinguising the managers whose careers really take off.

Outstanding employees are always

In short supply.

Managers

Get things done through other people they make decisions, allocate resources and direct the activities of others to attain goals. Called administrators in not-for-profit organizations.

Organization

Coordinated social united, composed of two or more people, that functions on a reltively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.

Henri Fayol

French industrialist wrote that all managers perform five management functions: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. These have been condensed into four: planning, organizing, leading and controlling.

Planning Function

Encompasses defining an organization's goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing a comprehensive set of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Increases the most as lower-level managers move to mid-level managers.

Organizaton Function

Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made.

Leading Function

Managers motivate employees, direct their activities, select the most effective communicaton channels or resolve conflicts among members, they're engaging in leading.

Controlling Function

Monitoring, comparing, and potential correcting.

Henry Mintzberg

MIT graduate in the 1960's took on a careful study of five executives to dtermine what they did on their jobs. he concluded that managers perform highly interrelated roles or sets of behaviors. (1) Interpersonal (2) informational (3) decisional.

Interpersonal Roles

Managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature. All managers have a leadership role which includes hiring, training, motivating, disciplining employees.

Informational Roles

All managers to some degree, collect information from outside organizations and institutions, typically by scanning the news media and talking with other people to learn of changes in the public's tastes what competitors may be planning and the like.

Decisional Roles

Four roles that require making choices 1) entrepreneur role, managers inititate and oversee new projects that will improve their organizations' performance. 2) disturbance handlers, managers take corrective action in response to unforeseen problems. 3) Resource allocators - human, physical and monetary 4) Negotiator role which they discuss issues and bargain with other units to gain advantages for their own unit.

Technical Skills

The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise.

Human Skills

The ability to understand, communicate with, motivate and support other people both individually and in groups.

Conceptual Skills

The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations. Identify problems, develop alternative solutions to correct those problems, evalutae those alternative solutions and select the best one. The ability to integrate new ideas with existing processes and innovate on the job are also crucial conceptual skills for today's managers.

Fred Luthans

Studied more than 450 managers. The average manager spend 32 percent of his time in traditional management activities, 29 percent communicating, 20 percent in human resource management activitries and 19 percent networking. Successful managers - networking made the largest relative contribution. Effective managers - communication made the largest relative contribution and networking the least.

Promotions

Based more on networking and political skills than performance.

Managers must develop their

people skills to be effective and successful.

Organizational behavior

A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations.

Systematic Study

Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and basing our conclusions on scientific evidence.

EBM

Evidence-based management complements systematic study by basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific eveidence.

The promise of OB

To use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience.

The study of OB is built

upon a number of behavioral disciplines, mainly psychology - individual level, - Group study in social psychology, sociology and anthropology.

Psychology

seeks to measure and sometimes change the behavior of humans. The study of learning, perception, personality, emotions, training, leadership effectiveness, needs and motivational forces, job satisfaction, decision-making processes, performance appraisals, attitude measurement, employee-selection techniques, work desin and job stress.

Social pysychology

People's influence on one another. How to implement change.

Sociology

Studies people in relationship to their social environment or culture. Formal organization theory and structure, power, conflict.

Anthropology

Study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Differences in fundamental valuyes, attitudes and behaviors between countries.

OB concepts must reflect

situational, or contingency conditions. IT ALL DEPENDS

The typical employee

is getting older; more women and people of color are in the workplace; coporate downsizing and heavy use of temporary workers are severing the bonds of loyalty that tied many employees to their employers; and global competition requires employees to become mroe flecible and cope with rapid change.

To work effectivity with people from different cultures

You need to understand how their culture, geography and religion have shaped them and how to adapt your mangement style to their differences.

Managers face the difficult task of

balancing the interest of their organization with their responsibilties to the communtiies in which they operate.

Worforce Diversity

Addresses differences among people within given countries. Women, men; many racial and ethnic groups; individiaul with a variety of pysical or psychological abililities, age sexual orientation.

The most significant change in the U.S. workforce

The number of female workers. In 1950 only 29.6%, in 2008 46.5% of women are working.

55 and older group

currently 13% of the labor force will increase to 20% by 2014.

The majority of employess in industrial nations

Work in service jobs. 80% of the US workers 73% in Australia 69% United Kingdom and Germany and Japan

Many organizations fail

Because its employees failed to please customers.

Successful organizations must foster

Innovations and master the art of change. Managers need to stimulate their employees creativity and tolerance for change.

Today's work climate

Best characterized as temporary. Workers must continually update their knowledge and skills to perform new job requirements.

The creations of a global organizations means

The world never sleeps. It is difficult to feel like you can ever get away from the office.

Employees want jobs that

Give them flexibility to manage their work and home life. Flexibility is more important to employees than job security.

Growth Area in OB

Positive organizational scholarship which studies how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality and resilience and unlock potential. Engagement, hope, optimism and resilience in the face of strain.

Reflected Best-Self

Positive organizational scholars have studed this concept asking employees to think about when they were at their personal best in order to understand how to exploit their strengths.

Determining the ethically correct way to behave

Is especially difficult in a global economy because different cultures have different perspectives on certain ethical issues.

Statistics can

Lie! Evidence is crucial to making effective management decisions but realize that evidence is created. Ask questions not only about the data but also about how it was gathered. Consider other sources. The questions mind has a way of getting to the bottom of things. Evidence is vary valuable that is why it is often manipulated.

Dependent variable

is the key factor that you want to explain or predict and that is affected by some other factor.

Productivity

Achieves its goals by transforming inputs into outputs at the lowest cost. Requires both effectiveness and efficiency.

A clear chain of cause and effect

Runs from employee attitudes and behavior to customer attitudes and behavior to a service organizations productivity.

Absenteeism

The failure to report to work is a huge cost. $789 per year per employee. It may be better for the organization if an ill or fatigued employee does not report to work.

Turnover

Voluntary or involuntary permanent withdrawl from an organization. To replace a system analyst $34,000 to replace a sales clerk $10,000.

Organizations have the responsibility

To provide employees with jobs that are challenging and intrinsically rewarding.

Independent variable

The presumed cause of some change in a dependent variable. Individuals characteristics, Group-level variables, Organization system-level variables.

Effective Diversity Management

Increases an organization's access to the widest possible pool of skills, abilities and ideas.

Most significant concern of Human Resources

The aging of the workforce. The loss of skills resulting from retirement of many baby boomers, increased medical costs due to an aging workforce and many employees needs to care for elderly relatives tropped the list of issues.

Surface Level Diversity

Perception of stereotypes and assumptions.

Deep-Level Diversity

Personality and values.

Discriminate

To note a difference between things. Whether intentional or not, discrimination can lead to serious negative consequences for employers, includeing reduced productivity and citizenship behavior, conflicts and increased turnover.

Incivility

Disrespectful treatment, including behaving in an aggressive manner, interrupting the person, or ignoring his or her opinions.

Biographical characteristics

Age, gender, race, disability and length of service are some of the most obvious ways employees differ.

This textbook is essentially concerned with

Finding and analyzing the variables that affect employee productivitiy, absence, turnover, deviance, citizenshjip and satisfaction.

The relationship between

Age and job performance is likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade for at least three reasons 1) Belief is widespread that job performance declines with increaseing age. Regardless if this is true, many people believe it and act on it. 2) Many Employers recognize that older workers represent a huge potential pool of quality applicants. 3) U.S. legitation that for all intents and purposes outlaws mandatory retirement. Most U.S. workers today no longer have to retire at age 70.

In general older employees

Are less likely to quit. They have more unavoidable absenteeism and less avoidable absenteeism. The evidence shows that age and decline in job performance are not related.

Job satisfaction with older employees

increases with professional careers and falls among nonprofessionals during middle age and then rises agin in the later years.

Few issues inititate more debates and

Misconceptions and unsupported opinions than whether women perform as well on jobs as men do. Evidence shows that there is no significant difference in job productivity between men and women. Gender still affects our perceptions.

Women who succeed in traditionally male domains are perceived as

Less likable, more hostile and less desirable as supervisors.

Women have higher

Turnover rate due to child responsibilities and home responsibilities.

Parents regardless of gender

Were rated lower in job committment, achievement striving, and dependability that individuals without children, but mothers were rated especially low in competence.

The issue of racial differences

In general mental ability tests continues to be hotly debated.

African-Americans

Fare worse than Whites in employement decisions. They receive lower ratings in employment interviews receive lower job performance ratings and are paid less and are promoted less frequently. Yet there are not statistically significant difference between African Americans and Whites in observed absences rates, appliedf socail skills at work or accident rates.

With the passage of the Americans with disablilties Act in 1990

The representation of individuals with disabilties in the U.S. workforce rapidly increased.

The most controversial aspects of the Americans with Disabilities Act

Is the provision that requires employers to make reasonable accommodations for people with psychiatric disabilties. Most people have very strong biases against those with mental illnesses, who are therefore reluctant to disclose this information to employers. Many who do, report negative consequences. Employability ratings for individuals with mental illnesses were especially low.

Recent evidence demonstrates

A positive relationship between seniority and job productivity. So tenure, expressed as work experience appears to be a good predictor of employee productivity.

The greatest religious diversity issue in the US today

Revolves around Islam. There are nearly two million Muslims in the US. 4 out of 10 US adults admit they harbor negative feelings or prejudices toward US Muslims and 52 percent believe US Muslims are not repectful of women.

Religious discrimination claims have been

A growing source of discrimination claims in the US.

Employers differ widely

In their treatment of sexual orientation. Federal Law does not prohibit discrimination against employees based on sexual orientation thought many States and Municipalities do.

Contrary to what we were taught in grade school

We were not all created edqual in our abilities. Most people are to the left or to the right of the median on some normally distributed ability curve.

Abilities are essentially made up of

Two sets of factors: intellectual and physical.

Intellectural abilities are

Abilities needed to perform mental activities, thinking, reasoning and problem solving. Most societies place a high value on intelligence and for good reason. Smart people generally earn more money and attain higher levels of education. They are more likely to emerge as leaders of groups.

GMA - General Mental Ability

The more complex a job in terms of information-processing demands, the more general intelligence and verbal abilities will be necessary to perform succcessfully.

Wonderlic Personnel Test

Widely used intelligence test in hiring.

Dimensions of Intellectual Ability

Number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning spatial visualization, memory.

Cultural Intelligence

The ability to relate well to people from different cultures. Being able to recognize, adjust, and correct our typical way of thinking and recognize alternative cultural points of view does require cognitive resource so some aspect of general mental ability likely affects cultural intelligence.

The correlation between job satisfaction and intelligence

Is about zero. Research suggest that althought intelligent people perform better and tend to have more interesting jobs, they are also more critical and evaluating their job conditions. Thus, smart people have it better, but they also expect more.

Qualifications are far more important

In determining who gets hired than demographic characteristics

Deep Level diversity factors

Appear to be more important in shaping people's reactions to one another than surface level characteristics.

Stores that fostered a positive

Diversity climate were able to capitalize on their diverse workforce and make more money.

Groups of individuals with different types of expertise and education

Are more effective than homogeneous groups. However, a group made entirely of assertive people who want to be in charge, or a group whose members all prefer to follow the lead of others, will be less effective than a group that mixes leadeers and followers.

Effective comprehensive workforce programs that encourage diversity

1) They teach managers about the legal framework of equal employment opportunity and encourage fair treatment of all people. 2) They teach managers how a diverse workforce will be able to better serve a diverse market of customers and clients. 3) they foster personal development practicies and bring out the skills and abilities of all workers, acknowledging how difference in perspective can be a valuable way to improve performance for everyone.

United States specifically forbids

Specific diversity targets and quotas for achieving affirmative action goals.

Ability directly influences

an employee's level of performance.

Main Components of Attitudes

Cognitive - description of a belief in the way things are. "My pay is low". Affective - Emotional or feeling segment. I am angry about how I am paid. Behavorial describes an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. "I'm going to look for another job that pays better".

Cognitive dissonance

Any incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.

General Attitudes

Best Predict general behaviors.

You are more likely to remember attitudes

You frequently express.

Most Employees find

Co-workers among the most satisfying aspects of their job.

If you are dissatisfied with a co-worker

First try the direct but conciliatory approach. 2) Resist the urge to play tit for tat. 3) If you cannot solve the problem, ignore it. 4) Do not go to management unless you have a positive solution or you feel your safety or career is threatened.

Job Satisfaction.

What people mean when they speak of employee attitudes.

Job involvement

Measures the degree to which people identify psychologiacally with their job and consider their perceived performance level important to self-worth.

Psychological Empowerment

Employees beliefs in the degree to which they influence their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job and their perceived autonomy.

Affective Commitment

An emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values.

Continuance Commitment

The perceived economic value of remaining with an organization. A study showed that continuance commitment really is a commitment at all it describes an employee tethered to an employer simply because there is not anything better available.

Normative Commitment

An obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons.

POS - Perceived Organizational Support.

The degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.

Employee Engagement

An individual's involvement with satisfaction and enthusiasm for the works she does. Highly engaged employees have a passion for their work and feel a deep connection to their company; disengaged employees have essentially checked out putting in the time but not the energy or attention into their work.

Three highest aspects of job satisfaction

1) Workplace physical conditions 2) Coworkers 3) Flexibility of work hours.

Three lowest aspects of job satisfaction

Retirement plan, pay, on the job stress

Job Satisfaction and Overall Happiness

Once an individual reaches a level of comfortable living (U.S. 40,000) the relationship between pay and job satisfaction virtually disappears.

Core Self-evaluations

People who believe in their inner worth and basic competence are more satisfied with their jobs than those with negative core self-evaluations.

Consequences of dissatisfaction.

1) Exit response - directs behavior toward leaving the organization including looking for a new position as well as resigning. 2) Voice response - includes actively and constructively attemp0ting to improve conditions including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors and undertaking some forms of union activity. 3) Loyalty - response means passively but optimistical;ly waiting for conditions to improve including speaking up for the organization. 4) Neglect response passively allows conditions to worsen and includes chronic absenteesim and lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate.

Organizations with more satisfied employees

Tend to be more effective than organizations with fewer satisfied employees.

OCB - Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Evidence suggests job satisfaction is moderately correlated. Fairness perceptions help explain the relationship. Those who feel their co-workers support them are more likely to engage in helpful behaviors.

Job satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction

Low employee morale was a major factor undermining customer satisfaction.

Workplace Deviance

Workers who do not like their jobs - get even by surfing the net, quitting, absenteeism.

Managers

Often over estimate job satisfaction amony employees. Regular surveys can reduce gaps between what managers think employees feel and what they really feel.

Most Important things managers can do to raise employee satisfaction is

Make the work challenging and interesting. Challenging work, equitable rewards, supportive working conditions and supportive collegues all add to job satisfaction. High pay alone is unlikely to create a satisfying work environment.

Affect

A generic term that covers a broad range of feelings people experience including both emotions and moods.

Emotions

Intense feelings directed at someone or something. If someone is rude to you you will feel angry for a short time. Reactions to a person or an event. Emotions can turn into moods when you lose focus on the event or object that started the feeling. Specific and numerous in nature. Action oriented in nature.

Moods

Less intense than emotions and often lack contextual stimulus. If you are in a bad mood you can feel bad for several hours. Directed at a person or an event. Cause is often general and unclear. last longer than emotions. More general two main dimensions, positive affect and negative affect. Cognitive in nature.

Emotions cannot

be neutral. Being neutral is being nonemotional.

High Negative Affect

Tense, Nervous stressed, upset.

Low Positive Affect

Sad, depressed, bored, fatigued.

High Positive affect

Alert, excited, elated happy

Low Negative Affect

Content, Serene, Relaxed, Calm

Emotions are

Critical to rational thinking. Emotions provide important information about how we understand the world around us.

Affect Intensity

is how strongly we we experience emotions.

Timing

We are generally in better moods from mid-morning onward and later in the weeki.

Weather

Contrary to the prevailing cultural view, data indicates that people do not report a better mood on bright and sunny days or worse mood on dark and rainy days.

Illusory correlation

People associate two events what in reality have no connection.

Stress

Negatively affects our mood. The effects build over time.

Social Activities

Activities that are physical, informal or epicurean (eating with others) are more strongly associated with increases in positive mood thanj events that are formal (attending a meeting) or sedentary (watching TV with friends)

Sleep

Quality affects mood. Can impair decision making and makes it difficult to control emotions - irritable, less alert.

People

Can't accurately forecast their own emotions.

Exercise

Enhances peoples positive mood.

Age

As we get older we experience fewer negative emotions. Older workers bring exdperience, judgment, a strong work ethic and commitment to quality. Measureable productivity.

Gender - women

Are more emotional and expressive than men. They experience emotions more intensely, and tend to hold onto emotions longer than men and they display more frequent expressions of both positive and negative emotions, except anger.. Gender does not really matter as to the job.

Emotional Labor

An employee's expresssion of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transations at work. The market does not financially reward emotional labor.

Emotional Dissonance

Employees have to project one emotion while feeling another.

Felt Emotions

Actual emotions

Displayed Emotions

Those that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given job.

Surface acting

Hiding inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules. Deals with displayed emotions.

Deep acting

We are tring to modify our true inner feelings based on display rules Deals with felt Emotions

AET - Effective events theory

Demonstrates that employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work, and this reaction influences their job performance and satisfaction.

Emotional Intelligence

A persons ability to 1) be self-aware 2) detect emotions in others 3) manage emotional cues and information.; EI not IQ characterized high performers. Overall EI correlated moderately with job performance.

Emotional Intelligence

Is biologically based. EI is neurologically based in a way that is unrelated to standard measures of intelligence.

Emotional Contagion

Employees emotions can transfer to the customer.

40% of all employees

Have been in an office romance. Most people hesitate to initiate one. 1) 3/4ths of organizations have no policies overning worplace romances. Make sure you know the rules. 2) Be particularly cautious about "dating up" and "dating down". 3) Avoid attempting to hide the romance. 4) If you are single ... it may be wise to consider an office romance because many individuals say that is how they met their spouse.

More men than women

would consider dating a coworker.

The degree to which

People experience emotions vary across cultures. In China poeple report experienceing few positive and negative emotions.

The acceptable norms of expressing emotions

Differ across cultures. US and Middle East recognize a smile as indicating happiness but in the Middle East a smile is more likely to be seen as a sign of sexual attraction, so women have learned not to smile at mean. In the US there is a bias against expressing emotions, especially intense negatiges ones.French retail clerks are infamous for being surly toward customers. Serious German shoppers have reportedly been turned off by friendly greeters and helpful staff. Japanese view frequent smiling to lack of intelligence.

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