The average weather that occurs in a given region over a period of time.
The layer closest to Earths surface.
The layer of atmosphere above the troposphere. extending 16km (10mi.) above Earth.
The percentage of incoming sunlight that is reflected from a surface.
The maximum amount of water vapor that can be in the air at a given temperature.
The cooling effect of reduced pressure on air as it rises higher in the atmosphere and expands.
The heating effect of increased pressure on air as it sinks toward the surface of Earth and decreases in volume.
Latent Heat Release
The release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water.
A convection current in the atmosphere that cycles between the equator and 30 degrees N and 30 degress S.
An area of Earth that recieves the most intense sunlight; where the ascending branches of two Hadley cells converge.
A convection cell in the atmosphere, formed by the air that rises at 60 degrees N and S, and sinks at the poles 90 degrees N and S.
The deflection of an objects path due to the rotation of the earth.
A large scale pattern of water circulation that moves clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
The upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as a result of diverging currents
El Nino- Southern Oscillation ENSO
The periodic changes in winds and ocean currents causing cooler and wetter conditions in the southeastern United States and usually dry in southern Africa and southeast Asia
A region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side
A geographic region categorized by a particular combination of average annual temperature, and annual precipitation, and distinctive plant growth forms on land and a particular combination salinity, depth, and water flow in the water
An impermeable, permanently frozen layer of soil
The shallow zone of soil and water and lakes and ponds where algae and emergent plants grow
A zone of open water and lakes and ponds
A region of water where sunlight doesn't reach, below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes
The mighty bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean
A phenomenon in which algae inside corral die, causing the corral to turn white
The upper layer of water in the ocean that receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis
The layer of ocean water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis
A process used by some bacteria in the ocean to generate energy with methane and hydrogen sulfide