AP Psychology Modules 1-3

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scientific study of behavior and mental processes

psychology

______ is also described as evaluating competing ideas, observations, and a way of asking and answering questions

psychology

(2) said the mind is separable from the body and continues after the body dies, knowledge is innate, and derived principles by logic

Socrates and Plato

(1) was a student of plato; said the soul is not separable from the body, principles were derived from observations, and knowledge is not pre-existing

Aristotle

(1) said the mind and body are separate and the soul lives on after death; dissected animals and said the brain's cavity contained "animal spirits" allowing movements

Rene Descartes

(1) one of the first "founders of modern science"; centered on experiment, experience, and common sense judgement

Francis Bacon

(1) said the mind is a "blank slate" (tabula rosa); helped form empiricism (knowledge that originates in experience) and science should rely on observation and experimentation; said things have to be observable and measurable

John Locke

(1) specialized in developmental psychology (children)

Jean Piaget

(2) were behaviorists; dismissed introspection (inner sensations); redefined psychology as SCIENCE ROOTED IN OBSERVATION OF BEHAVIOR

John B Watson and B.F. Skinner

(2) humanistic psychologists; emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

explored scientifically the way we perceive, process, and remember info

cognitive revolution

study of the interaction of thought processes and brain function

cognitive neuroscience

biology vs environment

nature vs nurture

how the brain and body enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences

neuroscience perspective

how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes

evolutionary perspective

Charles Darwin is known for what perspective?

evolutionary

Id, Ego, and Superego are under what perspective?

psychodynamic

Sigmund Freud is known for what perspective?

psychodynamic

what type of research builds a knowledge base for psychology?

basic research

what type of research attempts to solve practical problems?

applied research

helps with everyday life challenges such as marital strife, academic issues, social coaches

counseling

access and treats mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders

clinical psychologist

has a PhD; provides therapy, administers and interprets tests, conducts research

psychologist

medical doctors( MD); provides therapy to diagnose only, provides medication (rx), treats medical causes of disorders then refers client to psychologist

psychiatrist

we need to view problems with a true ____ ____ and also with the "____ __ ____" principle

open mind, whack a mole

the tendency to believe , after learning the outcome, that one would have forseen it

hindsight bias

we tend to think we know more than we do; we tend to be more confident than correct

overconfidence

examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and accesses conclusions

critical thinking

explains, organizes and predicts behaviors or events

theory

testable prediction

hypothesis

statement of procedures used to define research variables

operational definition

repeat observation or experiment

replicate

specific outcomes may not be correct in every situation but the _____ _____ of the experiment may help explain behaviors

general principle

shared ideas and behaviors that one generation passes on to the next

culture

men and women are overwhelmingly biologically and psychologically more similar than different

gender

men manifest disorders ____

outwardly

women manifest disorders ____

inwardly

why do psychologists study animals?

to learn how different species learn, think, and behave; and to learn about ppl

APA states its ethical to experiment on ppl if....(4 things)

informed consent, protect from harm, confidentiality, debrief

oldest method; studying one individual or small group in great depth; can suggest hypothesis for further study; CANNOT generalize

case study

studies many cases in less depth; asks ppl to report behavior or opinions

survey

US( all ages, races, socioeconomic status, gender, etc.)

target population

sample that matches the census

stratified sample

sample taht fairly represents a population because each member has an = chance of inclusion

random sampling

tendency to overestimate others agreement with us

false consensus

watching and recording the behavior of organisms in a natural occuring environment

naturalistic observation

describes behavior. doesn not explain it.

naturalistic observation

statistical measure of a relationship

correlation coefficient

reveals how closely 2 things vary together and how well either one predicts the other

correlation coefficient

A _____ correlation means that 2 sets of scores tend to rise and fall together

positive

A _____ correlation means that 2 things relate inversely

negative

A perfect positive correlation is ____ to ____

one to one

no matter how strong a correlation, its does not prove ____, only ____

cause, relationship

perception of a relationship where none exists

illusory correlation

the only way to find cause and effect is to _________

do an experiment

to explore cause and effect, we must must manipulate the _________ and hold ______ other terms in an experiment

independent variable, constantq

"sugar pill"

placebo

participants dont know who is receiving treatment

single blind

participants nor experimenter know who is receiving treatment

double blind

group that receives the treatment

experimental condition

group that receives no treatment, controls for environment

control condition

assigning participants to experimental/ control groups so personal bias will not exist

random assignment

factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied

independent variable

outcome factor or effect of independent variable

dependent variable

experiments aim to manipulate the______ variable, measure the ____ variable, control all other variables

independent, dependent

______________ works to equate the conditions/groups before any treament effects

random assignment

observe and record behavior; case study, survey, natural observations

descriptive

shows naturally occurring relationships

correlational

cause and effect; use random assignment to control for bias

experimental

______ statistics allow us to draw conclusions from organized data

inferential

average; most likely to change with different in standard deviation

mean

midpoint in scores

median

score that occurs most often

mode

how similar or diverse the scores are; range

variation

gap btwn highest and lowest scores

range

how the scores deviate from one another

standard deviation

more cases are better than ____

fewer

_____ samples are better than biased samples

representative (stratified)

if something is statistically significant, its _____

bad

when was the first psych lab created and by who?

wundt 1879

range and standard deviation are measures of what?

variability

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

psychology

the view that knowledge comes from experience via senses, and science flourishes through observation and experiment

empiricism

an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

structuralism

a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the oganism to adapt, survive, and flourish

functionalism

the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors

nature-nurture issue

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

natural selection

Who used introspection to search for the minds structural elements?

Edward Titchener

Who was the first woman to receive a psychology PhD?

Margaret Washburn

(2) who was a legendary teacher-writer than mentored ____, who became a pioneering memory researcher?

William James and Mary Calkins

Who is a famed personality theorist and therapist, whose ideas influenced humanitys self-understanding

Sigmund Freud

historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth

humanistic psychology

Who argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies

Charles Darwin

the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenom,enon

levels of anaylsis

an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

biopsychosocial approach

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

basic research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

applied research

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often school, work, or marriage related) and in achieving greater well being

counseling psychology

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

clinical psychology

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy

psychiatry

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

hindsight bias

thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusions, rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

critical thinking

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations

theory

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

hypothesis

a self-correcting process for asking questions and observing natures answer

the scientific method

a statement of the procedures used to define research variables

operational definition

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

replication

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

culture

an observation technique in which one person i studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principle

case study

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them

survey

the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

false consensus effect

all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for study

population

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

random sample

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

naturalistic observation

a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

correlation

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables

scatterplot

the perception of a relationship where none exists

illusory correlation

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance

statistical significance

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