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Virulence

the organisms power to overcome its hosts defenses (how strong it is)

Dose

number of pathogens that invade the body

Predisposition

likelihood of getting sick, influenced by general physical and emotional health, nutrition, living habits and age.

The first line of defense against invaders includes:

1.Intact skin
2.Mucous membranes (cilia in upper respiratory tract)
3.Body secretions(tears and saliva)
4.Certain reflexes (sneezing).

Phagocytosis

One cell eating another.

Macrophages A.K.A. "Big Eater"

Bouncers of the body.

Natural Killer Cell

recognize body cells with abnormal membranes (such as tumor cells), destroy bad cells on contact, found in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and blood.

Inflammation

a nonspecific defensive response, shown by heat, redness, swelling, and pain.

Histamine

small blood vessels dilate (widen)

Inflammatory exudate

mixture of leukocytes and fluid

Pus

living and dead white blood cells.

An increase in body temperature above the normal range

can be a sign that body defenses are active.

Certain cells infected with a virus release a substance that

prevents nearby cells from producing more virus.

Interferon

it "interferes" with multiplication and spread of the virus.

Antigen

any foreign substance that enters the body and induces an immune response.

4 Types of T Cells

1.Cytotoxic T Cells
2.Helper T Cells (interleukins)
3.Regulatory T Cells
4.Memory T Cells

Cytotoxic T Cells

POISON, destroy foreign cells directly.

Helper T Cells (interleukins)

ASSIST in the destruction of foreign cells.

Regulatory T Cells

suppress the immune response in order to prevent overactivity. (REGULATE)

Memory T Cells

REMEMBER an antigen and start a rapid response if that antigen is contracted again.

Macrophages are

phagocytic white blood cells derived from monocytes. They ingest foreign proteins.

MHC

Major history compatibility complex

For a T Cell to react with a foreign antigen

that antigen must be presented to the T Cell along with the MHC proteins.

Antibody A.K.A. "immunoglobin"

a substance produced in response to an antigen.

Antibodies are manufactured

by B cells.

Humoral Immunity

antigens and bacteria that grow outside the cells.

All antibodies are contained

in a portion of the blood plasma called the Gamma Globulin.

Vaccines can be made with live organisms

or with organisms killed by heat or chemicals.

Vaccines must be nonvirulent

such as cow pox virus used for small pox immunization.

Attenuated

an organism weakened for use in vaccines.

The newest types of vaccines are produced from

organic components of pathogens or by genetic engineering.

An active immunity acquired by artificial or even natural means

does not last a lifetime.

Circulating antibodies can

decline with time.

Booster Shots are given to

help maintain a higher titer level of antibodies in the blood.

The number and timing of doses

varies with the different vaccines.

Pertussis A.K.A.

whooping cough

DTaP

vaccine given to children in several different injections for diphtheria,tetanus and pertussis.

Dr. Jonas Salk

developed an inactivated polio vaccine (IVP), made with killed polio virus.

MMR

measles, mumps, rubella vaccine.

Infants are now routinely immunized against

hepatitis B.

A vaccine against chicken pox (varicella) has been available since

1995.

A shingles vaccine is available for

people 60 years or older.

Rotavirus

causes a highly contagious gastrointestinal infection among babies and toddlers. A new vaccine is now available for children.

HPV A.K.A.

Human papilloma virus, sexually transmitted, causes cervical cancer, vaccines available for males and females 11-26

Rabies vaccine is an exception to the rule that

a vaccine should be given before invasion by a disease organism.

Immune Serum A.K.A. Antiserum

"ready made" serum gives short lived but effective protection against the invaders

Immune sera

often derived from animals, mainly horses. Has been found that the horses tissues produce large quantities of antibodies in response to the injection of organisms or their toxins.

Examples of Antisera

for snake bites, botulism, rabies.

Allergy

hypersensitivity to certain things.

Allergens

reaction producing substances (such as pet dander.)

When a susceptible persons tissues are repeatedly exposed to an allergen

those tissues become sensitized (antibodies are produced in them)

The antigen-antibody reaction in sensitized individuals

promotes the release of excess histamine.

Antihistamines are drugs that counteract histamine and

may be effective in treating the symptoms of certain allergies.

Serum Sickness

an allergic manifestation that may occur in response to various sera. (over exposure)

People who are allergic to the proteins in the serum from a horse or some other animal show such symptoms as

fever, vomiting, joint pain, enlargement of the lymph nodes, and hives (urticaria).

AIDS A.K.A.

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

H.I.V. (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

destroys the specific helper T Cells

HIV is retrovirus meaning

"backward virus"

Retroviruses have

RNA instead of DNA as their genetic material.

Kaposi Sarcoma

malignant skin cancer, that AIDS patients often contract

Multiple Myeloma

cancer of the blood forming cells in the bone marrow.

Multiple Myeloma causes

loss of resistance to infection, anemia, bone pain, and bone weakening, accelerates loss of bone tissue.

Blood forming stem cells in the bone marrow

replace cells killed by the chemotherapy.

Immune Surveillance

process of NK cells and immune system patrolling for cancerous cells.

As a person ages cell mediated immunity declines

and cancer is more likely to develop.

Immunotherapy

treating cancer by stimulating the patients immune system.

Transplantation

grafting to a recipient of an organ or tissue from an animal or other human to replace an injured or incompetent body part.

Rejection Syndrome

Every organisms natural tendency to destroy foreign substances. (body rejecting a kidney transplant)

Dr. Edward Jenner (Father of Immunology)

Doctor to inject first vaccine, cow pox injected for small pox vaccine.

Sarah Nelms

Milk maid that told the Dr. that the secret was in first contracting cow pox.

Blossom

Cow the cow pox was taken from.

James Phipps

Son of Dr. Jenners' gardner, was the first person the vaccine was injected with cow pox to ward off small pox on May 14th 1796.

Vacca means

cow.

2 Types of Immunity

1.Inborn
2.Acquired

Inborn Immunity

Immunity to certain diseases, (humans can not get feline leukemia.)

Acquired Immunity

Occurs Naturally (active- chicken pox / passive- mothers milk) and Artificially (active- vaccination / passive- immune serum, such as anti-venom serum)

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