The history and clinical signs of dental disease in the horse are diverse. It not only affects the horse's ability to chew but may also affect ______, _______ and the major _____ ______
-performance -behaviour -major organ systems
Clinical signs of equine dental disease are very _____ so a complete physical exam is important. What are some clinical signs of equine dental disease?
-General 1. Difficulty chewing 2. Quidding (dropping food from mouth) 3. Oral odour 4. Excessive salivation 5. Resenting bit 6. Tossing head 7. Temperment change 8. Nasal or lacrimal discharge 9. weight loss 10. Fistulous tracts (draining from abcsess)
Evolutionary changes ensured that the equine tooth would grow at the same rate that it's grazing of native vegetation would wear them down. Recently the introduction of alternate forages has occurred too rapidly to expect any adaptation by the horse, what does this mean?
That we need to help the equine mouth compensate for the drastic change in food we have imposed upon them in order to prevent dental disease
Horses have ______ teeth made up of elements similar to the _____ teeth. What is the main differences between these two tooth types?
-hypsodont (long crown) -brachydont (short crown) 1. The configuration of the enamel, cementum, dentin and pulp 2. The hysodont tooth must continue to grow to account for the constant wear of the teeth from their abrasive diet
Unlike the rabbit hypsodont tooth, the equine has a _____ root and will stop _____ and might even be ____ in older horses
-closed -erupting -lost
T or F Periodontal structures of the horse are similar to those of the dog and cat
Equine Deciduous Dental Formula
2 x (3/3i, 0/0c, 3/3pm) = 24 teeth
Equine Permanent Dental Formula
2x (3/3i, 1(0)/1(0)c, 3(4)/3(4)pm, 3/3m) = 36 to 44 teeth
How many deciduous and permant incisors does the horse have?
The arcade becomes _____ with age and the ______ between the upper and the lowers becomes more pronounced
T or F Horses may have deciduous canine teeth but they do not erupt
Male horses normally have ___ permanent canines that erupt between __ and ___ years of age. Only about ___% of female horses have canines
-4 - 4 and 6 years -28%
Due to their morphologic similarity equine premolars and molars are commonly called ____ teeth
There are ____ deciduous premolar cheek teeth (___ in total) that erupt at birth or shortly after. These are replaced by the larger permanent premolars at ___,___ and ___ years of age.
-three -twelve - 2.5, 3, and 4 years of age
_____ molars erupt in each arcade (____ in total) for a grand total of ____ cheek teeth. The molars erupt at __, __ and ___ years.
-three -twelve -24 total -1, 2 and 3.5 years
Cheek teeth erupt at a rate of ___-____ mm per year to keep pace with wear which usually starts around ___ years and continues through life
-2-3 mm -5 years
What is the wolf tooth?
The rare vestigal premolar 1, when found it's usually in the maxilla and occasionally in the mandible
The distance between the ______ rows of cheek teeth is greater than the distance between the ______ rows. Therefore approximately __/__ of the occlusal surface of the ______ cheek teeth contacts ___of the occlusal surface of the ______ cheek teeth. What is this type of occlusion called?
-maxillary -mandibular -1/3 -half -maxillary -mandibular -Called anisognathism (the upper cheek teeth are spaced wider than the lower cheek teeth, so they only occlude partiall,y with a 1/3 of the occlusal surface of the uppers in contact with half of occlusal surface of the lowers)
What is the angle of contact between the upper cheek teeth and the lower. For the upper teeth which side is higher the lingualor the buccal? What does this cause?
10- 15 degrees -lingual -causes them to wear irregularly forming sharp edges on the outside of the maxillary teeth and on the inside of the mandibular teeth
The angle between the upper and lower cheek teeth causes them to wear irregularly with sharp edges forming on the _____ of the maxiillary teeth and on the ________ of the mandibular teeth/ Also a _____ may form on the first _____ cheek tooth and on the last _________ cheek tooth. Tese can be ______ and are the _____ _____ routine dental care is _______
-outside -inside -hook -maxillary -mandibular -painful -primary reason -required
What is the primary reason routine dental care is required in equine patients?
The sharp edges and hooks that form due to irregular wear that are painful to the horse
Equine teeth continue to erupt at the rate of ___-___ mm per year which corresponds to the rate of wear for a horse on a pasture.
Once irregularities of wear begin they will progressively worsen as teeth continue to erupt and wear. It follows that the tooth or tooth portion that do not contact it's opposing partner can form ____ or ___ teeth depending on the portion of tooth out of contact
-hooks -tall teeth
The practice of aging horses by oral/dental examination has been documented for ______ of years with records back to ____ ___. It is based on what (2)?
-thousands -600 BC 1. eruption patterns 2. wear related changes
Name some reasons for aging horses
1. Pre-purchase 2. Insurance policies 3. Disease prognosis 4. Identification
T or F Aging horses is usually very precise
F Not very precise and becomes less accurate the older the horse is
The best teeth to examine for aging are the ____ ______, the _____ teeth are difficult to visualize and as the _____ teeth do not wear they provide no info.
-lower incisors -cheek -canine
Breed differences can account for as much as a __ month variation in eruption times.
Once the permanent teeth are in place aging is estimated by looking at the _____ and appearance of the _____.
Two major benefit from having a veterinary team rather than a lay person treat a horse's teeth are...
-sedatives and analgesics are used -Knowledge which provides an acurate diagnosis and understanding of complications and related problems that may arise
The vestigal ____ tooth is usually _____, why?
-Wolf -extracted -1. sharp against Vet/AHT when working in mouth 2. Is in the place where the bit usually sits in the mouth
Horses adult teeth come in between age ___ and ___ years
3 and 5 years
Aging of horses based on teeth is most accurate up to the age of ___, why?
-5 years -Based on eruption patterns
The first teeth to erupt in a baby horse's mouth is the ____ _____ at _____. Then at __ - ___ weeks the ______ ______ erupts. Finally at ___-___ months the ____ ____ erupts
-central incisors -birth -4-6 weeks -middle incisors -6-9 months -third incisors