Something that occurs naturally (without people), physical characteristics.
EX: Trees, animals, seasons, water
Elements of culture.
EX: The arts, technology, buildings
The position of anything on Earth's surface. There are two kinds:
1) ABSOLUTE - precise coordinates (longitude and latitude).
2) RELATIVE - a description based on another location.
EX: Norway (Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden).
Human or physical characteristics shared by an area.
EX: Central America, Manhattan
A district without respect to boundaries or extent. There are three ways to classify:
1) FORMAL - borders (town, state, country, etc.)
2) FUNCTIONAL - task/job-based (agricultural area)
3) PERCEPTUAL - how WE see shared characteristics (Bible Belt, Red Sox Nation)
The sharing or traveling of people/things/ideas.
EX: silk, tools, religion, etc.
How humans affect and are affected by the environment.
EX: The building of a canal/bridge/road, natural disasters
The number of people in an area.
EX: United States: 313, 232, 044 people (July 2011 est.)
The study of population characteristics. Statistics in this field are called demographics.
EX: Age, gender, health, race, religion, wealth, political views
The average number of people living in a given area.
EX: India: 954 people per square mile
Lithuania: 142 people per square mile
Infant mortality rate
The number of deaths of infants (under 1 year of age) in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year.
EX: Guernsey: 3.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
Pakistan: 63.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
The average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year.
EX: China: 74.68 years
Senegal: 59.78 years
Too many people in one area with not enough resources to support them.
EX: Singapore: 4.38 million people (99.1% dependency rate)
Kuwait: 2.78 million people (93.5% dependency rate)
(10,000 B.C.E. in the Neolithic era). People went from being hunter-gatherers to forming agrarian societies and permanent settlements. Planting food and domesticating animals became widespread.
(Late 1700s-1850s). People transitioned from animal/human labor to using coal/steam/water-powered machines. Global trade increased.
(1800s-1930s). Many new medical discoveries - vaccines (late 1700s), pasteurization (1860s), and antibiotics (1928) to name a few - were made during this period.
Crude birth rate
The number of births per 1,000 people per year. If it's too high (in places with few or no woman's rights, this is common), then the country is overpopulated.
EX: Bulgaria: 9.32 births/1,000 people ( July 2011 est.)
Crude death rate
The number of deaths per 1,000 people per year.
EX: France: 8.76 deaths/1,000 people (July 2011 est.)
Mali: 14.29 deaths/1,000 people (July 2011 est.)
Zero Population Growth
When the number of births and immigrants are equal to the number of deaths and emigrants. (China's expecting it by 2030...)
The restriction of a culture from outside influence.
EX: The Amish, North Korea, isolated tribes in the Amazon rainforest.
A person who moves OUT of a country.
EX: The Chinese leaving their homes during the California Gold Rush (1848-55).
A person who moves INTO a country.
EX: The Irish into the United States during the Irish Potato Famine (1845-52).
Conditions that encourage people to move FROM a location.
EX: Not enough food, religious persecution, tyrannical government, etc.
Conditions that encourage people to move TO a location.
EX: Fresh start, more rights, etc.
The ability to read and write at a specified age.
EX: Afghanistan (15+). Total pop: 28.1%
United Kingdom (15+, 5+ yrs of school). Total pop: 99%
Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) The total value of all goods/ services made/done in your home country.
- Purchasing Power Parity (PPP): GDP per year.
EX: Qatar: $129.5 billion (GDP), $150.6 billion (PPP, 2010 est.)
Per Capita GDP
Per person (divide GDP by number of people for an average of access to resources).
EX: Russia: $15,900 (2010 est.)
Thailand: $8,700 (2010 est.)
School Life Expectancy
(SLE) The total number of years of school a kid can expect to receive.
EX: Germany: 16 years.
Laos: 9 years.
More Developed Country
(MDE) A country that has a high level of development.
EX: Japan, Canada, United States, Australia, most European countries, etc.
Less Developed Country
(LDC) A country that has a low level of development.
EX: Most of Africa, Madagascar, Haiti, Cambodia, etc.