is movement away from the midline of the body.
is movement toward the midline of the body
is movement around a joint in a circle.
is a slightly movable joint.
is an immovable joint, such as a "suture."
The metacarpal bones
of the parlm are near and distal to the carpal bones of the wrist.
The infraspinous fossa
is a depression inferior to the spine of the scapula.
The supraspinous fossa
is a depression superior to the spine of the scapula.
are located between the ribs.
The partial bones
form the side walls of the skull.
The paranasal sinuses
are near the nose.
dia- through, between
The diaphysis, or shaft, of a long bone is between the two ends, or ephiphyses.
oss, osse/o bone, bone tissue
Osseous tissue is another name for bone tissue.
oster/o bone, bone tissue
The periosteum is the febrous membrane around a bone.
As osteoclast breaks down bone in the proccess of resorption.
There are 80
bones in the axial skeleton.
The paranasal sinuses are near the nose.
The parietal bones form the side walls of the skull.
Intercostal spaces are located between the ribs.
Main functions of the bones:
Serve as the body framework, protect organs, serve as levers for movement, store calcium salts, form blood cells.
a. Diaphysis - shaft
b. Ephiphysis - end
Compact - in shaft of long bones; outside of other bones
Spongy (cancellous) - in end of long bone; center of other bones.
Red - in spongy bone
Yellow - in central cavity of long bones
- contain bone - forming cells
Periosteum - covers bone
Endosteum - lines marrow cavity
Bone growth and repair
Osteoblasts - bones forming cells
Osteocytes - mature bone cells that maintain bone
Osteoclasts - cells that break down (resorb) bone; derived from momocytes, type of white blood cells
Formation of long bone
- begin in center of shaft and continues at epipyseal plate.
Projections - head, process, condyle, crest, spine
Depressions and holes - foramen, sinus, fossa, meatus
Framework of the skull
Cranium - frontal, parietal, temporal, ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital
Facial bones - mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal, vomer, palatine, inferior, nasal conchae
Other - ossicles (of ear), hyoid
Infant skull - frotanels (soft spots)
Framework of the trunk
Vertebral column - divisions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
Thoracic and sacral -- concave, primary
Cervical and lumbar -- convex, secondary
sternum - manubrium, body, xiphoid process
Ribs: True - first 7 pairs
False -remaining 5 pairs, including 2 floating ribs
Appendicular Skeleton - Upper Division
Shoulder girdle - clavicle, scapula
Upper extremity - humerus, ulna, radius, carpals,metacrapals, phalanges
Appendicular Skeleton - Lower Division
Pelvic bones - os coxae (hip bone); ilium, ischium, pubis
-- female pelvis lighter, wider more rounded than male
Lower extremity - femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges