life span perspective
aging is viewed in the context of the rest of the life span
Brofenbrenners ecological theory
focuses on how a developing person is embedded in a series of interacting systems.
Vygotskys sociocultural theory
one of the first theories to emphasize the influence of the sociocultural context on development.
developed the five stages of phychosexual develpment.
moral reasoning theory
proposes that human cognition consists of mental hardware and software
based his social cognitive theory on a complex view of reward, punishment, and imitation
studied operant conditioning
people learn much by simply watching those around them.
competence environmental press theory
according to this theory, how well people adapt depends on the match between their abilities and the demands put on them by the environment.
alert inactivity, sleeping, waking activity, crying
4 common behavioral states of newborns
begins with a sudden loud burst which is followed by a long pause and a gasp.
In newborns, REM sleep is also referred to as
3 dimensions of temperament
surgency, negative affect and effortful control are the
is a cell that specializes in receiving and transmitting information
is the wrinkled surface portion of the brain that regulates many human functions
wraps around axons and speeds up neural transmission
refers to the extent to which brain organization is flexible.
experience dependent growth
focuses on brain changes not linked to a specific point in development and that which varies across cultures.
the early, unsteady form of walking is called
the mastery of the component skills needed to walk is referred to as involving
A researcher who is trying to determine the smallest pattern that infants can dependably distinguish with their eyes is studying visual...
Motion _____ uses the speed of objects to determine distance.
cues are all ways in which depth perception is conveyed in drawings and other visual images.
Intersensory ____ refers to information that is presented simultaneously to different sensory modes.
differentiation of cells marks the end of this period, implantation occurs, the nuclei of the egg and sperm fuse, and the two independent sets of 23 chromosomes are interchanged, fertilization takes place.
specialization of cells occurs, three layers begin to form, body structures and internal organs develop.
mother feels movement, the skin thickens and is covered with a thick greasy substance called the vernix, final and longest stage of prenatal development, all regions of the brain grow, particularly the cerebral cortex, baby has reached the age of viability, cartilage begins to turn into bone.
Piaget referred to the psychological structures that organize experience as
According to Piaget, when a new experience is readily incorporated into an existing scheme, this is occurring.
The belief that an inanimate object has lifelike properties is called
The core ____ hypothesis suggests that infants are born with rudimentary understanding of the world.
The belief that all living organisms have an unseen essence that gives them an identity is called
Information-processing theorists use the term "mental ___" when referring to the neural structures built into the mind.
When presented with a strong or unfamiliar stimulus, humans will automatically attend to the stimulus. This reaction is referred to as an _____ response.
A diminishing response to a familiar stimulus is called
_____conditioning occurs when a neural stimulus comes to elicit a response originally produced by a different stimulus.
A memory for an event in your own life is called an ______memory.
According to the ____ principle, number names need to be counted in the same order.
Vygotsky referred to the difference between what a child can do on their own and with assistance using the phrase "zone of ____ development"
A teacher gauging the amount of assistance needed to match a learner's needs is using a technique called ________
is an early infant vowel like sound.
When a child applies rules to words that are exceptions, their error is referred to as an
nature/nurture, continuity/discontinuity, universal/context specific development
list 3 reoccurring issues of human growth
genetic vs. environment
smooth vs. abrubt
universal/context specific development
one path vs. many
biological, psychological, sociocultural, life cycle
List the four forces in development according to the biopsychosocial framework.
force of genetics, lifestyle
foce of cognitions, emotions, perceptions and personality
force of influential people, common knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs
force of influence from biological, psychological, AND sociocultural.
an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development. Essential for predictions and behavior, predictions result in research that helps to support or clarify it. Define, understand, predict, control.
naturalistic and structured
What are the 2 types of systematic observation?
real life, hard to come by, does not include longitudinal info.
researcher creates a situation likely to result in a type of behavior in which they are interested.
measurements should be a consistent index of a characteristic. Same outcome every time
measures what we think we are measuring
broad groups of people in which researchers may be interested
subset of the population chosen to represent the population.
measures relationship between variables as they are observed naturally in the world.
provides an index which indicates the strength of the relationship between variables
What does +1 or -1 mean?
What does correlation not prove?
longitudinal, cross-sectional, sequential
What are the 3 designs for studying development?
is expensive and takes time...observes or tests one group over a long period.
is time effective...observes/tests groups of different ages
a combo of cross sectional and longitudinal designs
analysis of many studies to estimate relations between variables and allows scientists to verify findings across may studies
identical twins because they come from a single fertilized egg that splits in two (same genes)
fraternal twins that come from two separate eggs fertilized by two separate sperm (just like regular siblings)
zygote, embryo, fetus
What are the 3 stages of prenatal development?
outer layer that becomes hair, outer skin, and nervous system
middle layer forms muscles, bones, and the circulatory system
inner layer forms digestive system and lungs
Embryo rests in a sac called ___ which is filled with amniotic fluid that cushions the embryo and maintains a constant temperature
links the mother and embryo and houses blood vessels that join the embryo to the placenta.
the growth from head to base of spine
illustrated by growth of parts near the center of the body before those that are more distant.
the wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many important behaviors
age of viability
by 22 to 28 weeks most systems function well enough that a fetus born at this time has a chance of survival
By 5 or 6 months in utero, the skin thickens and is covered with a thick greasy substance that protects the fetus during its long bath in amniotic fluid.
an agent that causes abnormal prenatal development
teratogen affect on prenatal development
can cause deformaties, cognitive defecits, heart damage, retarded growth, ADD, low birth weight...etc...
alcohol, aspirin, caffeine, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, nicotine
drugs/hormones, fetal surgery, genetic engineering
List 3 forms of fetal medicine
concerned with treating prenatal problems before birth
drugs or hormones are administered to fetus to induce
problems such as spina bifida can be corrected in 7th to 8th mo. of pregnancy via this
defective genes are replaced by synthetic normal cells
Stage 1 of labor
first contractions, cervix enlarges to 10cm, 12 to 24 hours
Stage 2 of labor
baby passes through cervix and enters vagina, baby crowns and is delivered
Stage 3 of labor
placenta/afterbirth is delivered
reflex -toes fan out when foot is stroked from heel to toe
reflex - eyes close in response to bright light or loud noises
reflex - throws arms out and then inward in response to loud noise or when head falls
grasps an object placed in palm
baby turns head toward stroking
when held by an adult and moved forward, baby steps
does this when object is placed in mouth
focuses on systems needed to sustain life...heartrate, respiration, muscletone, reflexes, skin tone >7 good; 4-6 special care, < 3 life threatening.
Neonatal behavioral assessment scale...Includes 28 behavioral items, autonomic(involuntary), motor(voluntary), social systems(interactions), and state(staying alert)
alert inactivity, waking activity, crying, sleeping
4 states an infant experiences
parent smoking, child sleeping on stomach, overheating, african americans are twice as likely to die from this because of being placed on stomach.
growth rate is rapid
first three months
infant doubles weight
infant triples weight
when should you introduce healthy foods, establish routine eating, plus instilling that breakfast important
if you take a child grocery shopping, teach them to cook, and or plant a garden with them you are getting them
if you eat healthy and drink water with your child, provide a pleasant eating atmosphere, don't ban foods or use them as a reward/punishment you are establishing
soma, dendrites, axon, terminal buttons
What are the structures of neurons?
When terminal buttons release chemicals called neurotransmitters it causes
differentiation of cells
marks the end of a period
differentiation of skills
the mastery of intricate motions (component skills) and integration which is combining the motions in proper sequence into a coherent, working whole
info arriving from sense organs (eyes, ears, etc...)
mental process of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns.
newborns react to them as being pleasant or unpleasant
newborns differentiate between salty, sour, bitter, and sweet with facial reactions
reflex and movement, newborns react to painful stimuli with cry, wails and are not easily soothed.
newborns have startled ractions from pitches and can locate direction and distance by this
newborns respond to light and track movement, have acuity.