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prokaryotic

no true nucleus, nucleoids, bacteria

eukaryotic

has a nucleus, membrane-bounded

Linnaeus

"father of taxonomy", created the binomial system of nomenclature 1700's, 'Genus species'(underlinded)

scientific method

observation
form hypothesis
prediction
experiment & analyze data
conclusion

scientific theory

explanation that has withstood rigorous testing

cell theory

all organisms are made of cells and all cells come from preexisting cells

controlled experiment

tests with a controlled variable, tests each 1 at a time

***

1.experimental research is experimental.
2.descriptive research is observational.
__________________________________________
3 domains, 6 kingdoms, species=most specific

What are the 3 domains?

1.bacteria
2.Archaea
3.Eukarya

What are the 6 kingdoms?

1.animals
2.fungi
3.plant
4.protist
5.archaebacteria
6.Eubacteria

What are the studies for Placebo effect?

single blind study
double blind study

what are archaea?

single cell, prokaryotes

what are bacteria?

single cell, prokaryotes

what are eukarya?

eukaroytic, single or multicellular

what are animalia?

heterotrophs (eat other things)

what are fungi?

saprophytes (eat dead material)

what are plantae?

autotrophs (make their own food, eat themselves)

what are protisits?

collection of different things, great diversity

biotic world

living world

abiotic world

nonliving world

what are the 7 characteristics of all living organisms?

1.composed of cells & highly organized
2.emergent properties- complex & ordered
3. external stimuli-respond to the environment
4. Biogenesis, grow-develop, & reproduce
5. metabolism-obtain & use energy
6. homeostasis-stable internal balance
7. life changes-allow evolutionary adaptation

cell

a unit, by Robert Hooke 1665

emergent properties

1.each level of organization is more complex than the previous
2.properties arise b/c of the interactions of the WHOLE
3.the WHOLE is greater than the sun of the parts
4.are not additive

stages of an atom ->

atom->molecules->macromolecule->organelle->cells->tissue->organ->organ system->organism->population->species->community->ecosystem->biosphere

at what level does evolution occur at?

population level

phototaxis
chemotaxis

examples of external stimuli,
-light (+) plus/towards (-) negative/away
-chemical " "

biogenesis

life comes from life

charles darwin

-naturalist on the "beagle"
-mapped expedition around coastal S.America (5yrs)
-studied and observed for 30 years
-published "On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection" 1859

evolution

process where characteristics of organisms change over times, "gradual divergence"

species

group of organisms with similar structure, function, and behavior, only breed with one another in nature

adaptation

any form, function or behavior that promotes the likely-hood of a species survival

genome

all genes have an organism

mutation

a change in the DNA

gene pool

all genes and their variations in a population

pre-darwinian ideas...

-aristotle
-jean baptisit lamarck ("use/disuse" giraffes)
-alfred Russell wallace 1858 (had same concept at darwin)
-charles darwin "origin of the species 1859

Natural selection drives evolution by...

1. individual variations
2. over-production (reproduction potential)
3.limits on population growth
4.differential reproductive success

what are the 5 scientific evidence for evolution

1. fossil
2. comparative anatomy homology
3. biogeography homology
4.development homology
5. genetic homology

Fossil: evidence

-any trace of an organism that lived in the past
-origin of first prokaryote cells to the origin of humans

comparative anatomy:evidence

1. homologous structures
2.analogous structure
3.vestigial structures

homologous structures

=similar structure evolved different function
-same ancestral structure but different function
-different appearance and different function
-derived from same body part but different function

analogous structures

=structures of different origin used for the same purpose (ex: butterfly wings & bird wings)

vestigial structures

-evolutionary relicts
-remnants of organs w/ important ancestral functions (ex:appendix, tailbone, hair)

biogeography:evidence

-geographic relatedness (pangaea)
-two different environments that support groups of plant/animal life that suggests ancestral relatedness
-"continental drift"

development:evidence

-early embryos of vertebrates are very similar & diverge as they develop

genetic: evidence

-relatedness of DNA sequence
-DNA code is common to living organisms
-highly conserved proteins

"Vital Force"

Chemistry

matter

anything that takes up space

3 states

solid
liquid
gas

what are the 12 biotic(living) elements?

carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen,sodium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, iron, magnesium

what are the most important elements?

CHNOPS- carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur

compounds

fixed ratio of elements

mixtures

not fixed ratio of elements ex: air

protons

1 mass unit or 1 dalton
positively charged
located in the nucleus

neutrons

1 mass unit or 1 dalton
neutral charge
located in the nucleus

electrons

so small that weight is disregarded
negatively charged
found outside the nucleus

atomic mass

# of protons + # of neutrons
amount located in the top left of element Symbol

atomic number

is the # of protons (#Protons=#Neutrons)
amount located in the bottom left of element Symbol

ion

charged particle; 2 types

cation

(+) positive charge
# of protons is greater than # of electrons

anion

(-) negative charge
# of protons is less than # of electrons

isotopes

# of protons does NOT equal # of neutrons

half-life

time it takes for one-half of the atoms in a sample to decay

Atoms...

1. have weight
2. have chemical properties

where are electrons located?

in the orbitals outside

what determines chemical behavior in an atom?

number and arrangement

Bohr model

discrete orbitals; around a nucleus where electrons are found

electron orbitals

-2electrons in each orbital (max)
-1st energy level has 2 electrons
-2nd energy level has 8 electrons
-each shell filled before the next

spherical orbitals..

1s=spherical orbital
2s=1 spherical orbital
2p=3 dumbbell ortibals

energy levels

electrons differs in their energy content
electron shells designate relative amount of potential energy

valence shell

outter most shell of orbital

valence

electrons in outer most shell

inert atom

unreactive atom, valence shell is full (8)

chemical bonds

molecules formed when valence electrons react with one another

energy relationships

needed to break or bind a bond

redox reaction

"reduction oxidation", when there is reduction there is oxidation (vice versa)

oxidation

loss of an election (Oxidation Is Lost)

reduction

gain of an election (Reduction Is Gained)

molecules

chemical bond
groups of atoms held together by stable association

compounds

chemical bond
molecules with more than 1 type of element

levels of bond strength..

covalent->ionic->hydrogen->hydrophobic interaction->van der waals attraction

covalent bonds

-atoms share valence electrons
-strength depends on # of shared electrons
-single bond<double bond<triple bond

electronegatively

attraction of electrons towards an atom making the atom a negative ion

nonpolar

shares electrons equally (H2)

polar

unequal sharing of electrons (H2O)

ionic bonds

attraction of oppositely charged ions
ex: Na donates an electron & Cl accepts it
NaCl redox rx, both shells are filled

hydrogen bonds

-weak electrical attractions
-intramolecular
-intermolecular

hydrophobic

very weak, aqueous

van der waals

very wek electrical attractions due to charge asymmetry

chemical reactions

making and breaking of chemical bonds
reactants->product

water

-pure water is a solvent
-only common molecule that exists in 3 states
-forms hydrogen bonds
-polar covalent molecule
-polar molecules and ions dissolve easily in water
-non polar molecules do NOT dissolve easily
-frozen is less dense than liquid

cohesive

stick together

adhesive

stick to surface

surface tension

measure of difficulty to break the surface of water

crystal lattice

forms in ice with water molecules

molecular weight

(MW) sun of atoms weight, 1 mol

molarity

# of mols solute/liter
ex:glucose C6H12O6 MW=342 g/L=1 mol glucose

what is the pH of blood?

7.35-7.45

what is the pH of rain water?

6.24

neutral pH?

[H+] of 10^-7 mol/L

1 pH unit=10 fold (change) [H+]

***

basic pH 14
neutral pH 7
acidic pH 1

***

buffer

take up or release of hydrogen [H+]
-minimizes changes in hydrogen and hydroxide ions
-range pH 4-6

what is dependent on pH?

enzyme function

thermodynamics

branch of chemistry concerned with "energy changes"

what is a close system?

the biosphere

what is an open system?

organisms

what is the 1st law of thermodynamics?

"transfered and transformed"
-energy cannot be created nor destroyed
-total energy in the universe remains constant
-energy is lost as heat

what's 2nd law of thermodynamics

"entropy"
-continuously increases
-energy transformations proceed spontaneously to convert matter

entropy

a disorder that increases spontaneously

more ordered->less stable
less ordered->more stable

***

energy

capacity to do work

potential energy

stored energy

kinetic energy

energy of motion

where do photosynthetic organisms capture energy from?

the sun

what do organisms utilize?

free energy

Gibbs, free energy

G=H-T*S
free energy=total energy-absolute temperature * entropy

endergonic

requires input of energy
not spontaneous
needs help/additive
products>free energy than reactants
+ change in G

exergonic

happens on its own
spontaneous
products<free energy than reactants
- change in G

if the change of G does not equal zero...

work occurs

if the change of G do equal zero...

death, no work occurs

G equals...

the measure of instability

products ->

high potential energy
more order

reactants->

low potential energy
less order
high entropy

carbon

backbone of biomolecules
bonding of C+H,N,O,P,S

organic molecules

proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, & lipids

how many covalent bonds can carbon form?
Is carbon branches?

4
yes

hydrocarbons

molecules backbone or skeleton
composed of only C+H
nonpolar
tend to make hydrophilic
involved in chemical reactions

hydrophobic

"water fearing" non polar

hydrophilic

"water loving" polar

what are the 6 functional groups?

amino acids
carbonyl
carboxyl
hydroxyl
phosphate
sulfhydryl

dimers

2 chained

non-ionized form

OH

ionized form

O-

condesation

monomer in, water out

hydrolysis

water in, monomer out (adding H2O)

Is there rotation around a peptide bond?

NO

How many protein conformation levels are there?

4...proteins can be broken down into these 4 basic levles

what are the 4 levels of protein conformations?

1.Primary structure-polypeptide bonds
2.Secondary structure- polypeptides joining with hydrogen bonds
3. tertiary structure-interactions determine structure; they are diverse
4. Quaternary structure- intramolecular or intermolecular

denaturation

loss of structure and function; unfolded

catalyst

speeds up chemical reaction

enzyme

protein that functions as a catalyst

in a secondary structure, what are the 2 structures protein backbones can form?

a helix- backbone is coiled or
a B-pleated sheet- peptide chain bends 180 and then folds

what are bonds tertiary structures form?

peptide
hydrogen
hydrophobic
disulfide brigdes/covalent
ionic

primary structure

sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide bond

secondary structure

depends on primary structure; formation of helices and pleated sheets in a polypeptide

tertiarty structure

over all 3 dimensional shape of a polypeptide; bonds and other interactions between R-groups; depends on primary and secondary

quaternary structure

van der waals interaction; shape produced by combionations of polypeptides; bonds and interactions between R-groups; depends on primary, secondary and tertiary structure; ionic and hydrogen bonds form between polypeptide chains

active site

catalytic center, where catalysis occurs; where substrates bind and react

allosteric site

location other than the active site where molecules bind

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