"father of taxonomy", created the binomial system of nomenclature 1700's, 'Genus species'(underlinded)
1.experimental research is experimental.
2.descriptive research is observational.
3 domains, 6 kingdoms, species=most specific
what are the 7 characteristics of all living organisms?
1.composed of cells & highly organized
2.emergent properties- complex & ordered
3. external stimuli-respond to the environment
4. Biogenesis, grow-develop, & reproduce
5. metabolism-obtain & use energy
6. homeostasis-stable internal balance
7. life changes-allow evolutionary adaptation
1.each level of organization is more complex than the previous
2.properties arise b/c of the interactions of the WHOLE
3.the WHOLE is greater than the sun of the parts
4.are not additive
stages of an atom ->
examples of external stimuli,
-light (+) plus/towards (-) negative/away
-chemical " "
-naturalist on the "beagle"
-mapped expedition around coastal S.America (5yrs)
-studied and observed for 30 years
-published "On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection" 1859
process where characteristics of organisms change over times, "gradual divergence"
group of organisms with similar structure, function, and behavior, only breed with one another in nature
-jean baptisit lamarck ("use/disuse" giraffes)
-alfred Russell wallace 1858 (had same concept at darwin)
-charles darwin "origin of the species 1859
Natural selection drives evolution by...
1. individual variations
2. over-production (reproduction potential)
3.limits on population growth
4.differential reproductive success
what are the 5 scientific evidence for evolution
2. comparative anatomy homology
3. biogeography homology
5. genetic homology
-any trace of an organism that lived in the past
-origin of first prokaryote cells to the origin of humans
=similar structure evolved different function
-same ancestral structure but different function
-different appearance and different function
-derived from same body part but different function
=structures of different origin used for the same purpose (ex: butterfly wings & bird wings)
-remnants of organs w/ important ancestral functions (ex:appendix, tailbone, hair)
-geographic relatedness (pangaea)
-two different environments that support groups of plant/animal life that suggests ancestral relatedness
-relatedness of DNA sequence
-DNA code is common to living organisms
-highly conserved proteins
what are the 12 biotic(living) elements?
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen,sodium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, iron, magnesium
what are the most important elements?
CHNOPS- carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur
is the # of protons (#Protons=#Neutrons)
amount located in the bottom left of element Symbol
-2electrons in each orbital (max)
-1st energy level has 2 electrons
-2nd energy level has 8 electrons
-each shell filled before the next
electrons differs in their energy content
electron shells designate relative amount of potential energy
"reduction oxidation", when there is reduction there is oxidation (vice versa)
levels of bond strength..
covalent->ionic->hydrogen->hydrophobic interaction->van der waals attraction
-atoms share valence electrons
-strength depends on # of shared electrons
-single bond<double bond<triple bond
attraction of oppositely charged ions
ex: Na donates an electron & Cl accepts it
NaCl redox rx, both shells are filled
-pure water is a solvent
-only common molecule that exists in 3 states
-forms hydrogen bonds
-polar covalent molecule
-polar molecules and ions dissolve easily in water
-non polar molecules do NOT dissolve easily
-frozen is less dense than liquid
take up or release of hydrogen [H+]
-minimizes changes in hydrogen and hydroxide ions
-range pH 4-6
what is the 1st law of thermodynamics?
"transfered and transformed"
-energy cannot be created nor destroyed
-total energy in the universe remains constant
-energy is lost as heat
what's 2nd law of thermodynamics
-energy transformations proceed spontaneously to convert matter
requires input of energy
products>free energy than reactants
+ change in G
molecules backbone or skeleton
composed of only C+H
tend to make hydrophilic
involved in chemical reactions
How many protein conformation levels are there?
4...proteins can be broken down into these 4 basic levles
what are the 4 levels of protein conformations?
1.Primary structure-polypeptide bonds
2.Secondary structure- polypeptides joining with hydrogen bonds
3. tertiary structure-interactions determine structure; they are diverse
4. Quaternary structure- intramolecular or intermolecular
in a secondary structure, what are the 2 structures protein backbones can form?
a helix- backbone is coiled or
a B-pleated sheet- peptide chain bends 180 and then folds
what are bonds tertiary structures form?
depends on primary structure; formation of helices and pleated sheets in a polypeptide
over all 3 dimensional shape of a polypeptide; bonds and other interactions between R-groups; depends on primary and secondary
van der waals interaction; shape produced by combionations of polypeptides; bonds and interactions between R-groups; depends on primary, secondary and tertiary structure; ionic and hydrogen bonds form between polypeptide chains
enzyme of metabolic pathway..
2. "substrate specific"
3. steps cannot be skipped
4.any enzyme absent=reaction stops
5. each substrate becomes a product
6. synthetic and degradative pathways can interact
7. reactions can be regulated
8. most globular proteins
9. speed up reaction time
10. not permanetly altered -> recycled
11. -ase. when ending in this, usually an enzyme
atoms or group of atoms; also called side chains ( the element that branches downwards below the chain)
contains deoxyribose sugar
ATGC- contains thymine
double strand, helix
what are the 3 components of a nucleotide?
3. nitrogen bases (purines and pyrimidines)
-standard directionally- 5 down to 3, 3 down to 5
-strands are held together by hydrogen bonds btwn nitrogenous bases
- runs in opposite direction
-only purine-pyrimidine pairs fit inside double helix
complementary base pairing in DNA helix...
G->C (guanine to cytosine) 3 bonds
A->T ( adenine to thymine)2 bonds
*G->C is harder bond to break
when do strands seperate?
dna strands seperate when hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs are broken