no true nucleus, nucleoids, bacteria
has a nucleus, membrane-bounded
"father of taxonomy", created the binomial system of nomenclature 1700's, 'Genus species'(underlinded)
experiment & analyze data
explanation that has withstood rigorous testing
all organisms are made of cells and all cells come from preexisting cells
tests with a controlled variable, tests each 1 at a time
1.experimental research is experimental.
2.descriptive research is observational.
3 domains, 6 kingdoms, species=most specific
What are the 3 domains?
What are the 6 kingdoms?
What are the studies for Placebo effect?
single blind study
double blind study
what are archaea?
single cell, prokaryotes
what are bacteria?
single cell, prokaryotes
what are eukarya?
eukaroytic, single or multicellular
what are animalia?
heterotrophs (eat other things)
what are fungi?
saprophytes (eat dead material)
what are plantae?
autotrophs (make their own food, eat themselves)
what are protisits?
collection of different things, great diversity
what are the 7 characteristics of all living organisms?
1.composed of cells & highly organized
2.emergent properties- complex & ordered
3. external stimuli-respond to the environment
4. Biogenesis, grow-develop, & reproduce
5. metabolism-obtain & use energy
6. homeostasis-stable internal balance
7. life changes-allow evolutionary adaptation
a unit, by Robert Hooke 1665
1.each level of organization is more complex than the previous
2.properties arise b/c of the interactions of the WHOLE
3.the WHOLE is greater than the sun of the parts
4.are not additive
stages of an atom ->
at what level does evolution occur at?
examples of external stimuli,
-light (+) plus/towards (-) negative/away
-chemical " "
life comes from life
-naturalist on the "beagle"
-mapped expedition around coastal S.America (5yrs)
-studied and observed for 30 years
-published "On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection" 1859
process where characteristics of organisms change over times, "gradual divergence"
group of organisms with similar structure, function, and behavior, only breed with one another in nature
any form, function or behavior that promotes the likely-hood of a species survival
all genes have an organism
a change in the DNA
all genes and their variations in a population
-jean baptisit lamarck ("use/disuse" giraffes)
-alfred Russell wallace 1858 (had same concept at darwin)
-charles darwin "origin of the species 1859
Natural selection drives evolution by...
1. individual variations
2. over-production (reproduction potential)
3.limits on population growth
4.differential reproductive success
what are the 5 scientific evidence for evolution
2. comparative anatomy homology
3. biogeography homology
5. genetic homology
-any trace of an organism that lived in the past
-origin of first prokaryote cells to the origin of humans
1. homologous structures
=similar structure evolved different function
-same ancestral structure but different function
-different appearance and different function
-derived from same body part but different function
=structures of different origin used for the same purpose (ex: butterfly wings & bird wings)
-remnants of organs w/ important ancestral functions (ex:appendix, tailbone, hair)
-geographic relatedness (pangaea)
-two different environments that support groups of plant/animal life that suggests ancestral relatedness
-early embryos of vertebrates are very similar & diverge as they develop
-relatedness of DNA sequence
-DNA code is common to living organisms
-highly conserved proteins
anything that takes up space
what are the 12 biotic(living) elements?
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen,sodium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, iron, magnesium
what are the most important elements?
CHNOPS- carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur
fixed ratio of elements
not fixed ratio of elements ex: air
1 mass unit or 1 dalton
located in the nucleus
1 mass unit or 1 dalton
located in the nucleus
so small that weight is disregarded
found outside the nucleus
# of protons + # of neutrons
amount located in the top left of element Symbol
is the # of protons (#Protons=#Neutrons)
amount located in the bottom left of element Symbol
charged particle; 2 types
(+) positive charge
# of protons is greater than # of electrons
(-) negative charge
# of protons is less than # of electrons
# of protons does NOT equal # of neutrons
time it takes for one-half of the atoms in a sample to decay
1. have weight
2. have chemical properties
where are electrons located?
in the orbitals outside
what determines chemical behavior in an atom?
number and arrangement
discrete orbitals; around a nucleus where electrons are found
-2electrons in each orbital (max)
-1st energy level has 2 electrons
-2nd energy level has 8 electrons
-each shell filled before the next
2s=1 spherical orbital
2p=3 dumbbell ortibals
electrons differs in their energy content
electron shells designate relative amount of potential energy
outter most shell of orbital
electrons in outer most shell
unreactive atom, valence shell is full (8)
molecules formed when valence electrons react with one another
needed to break or bind a bond
"reduction oxidation", when there is reduction there is oxidation (vice versa)
loss of an election (Oxidation Is Lost)
gain of an election (Reduction Is Gained)
groups of atoms held together by stable association
molecules with more than 1 type of element
levels of bond strength..
covalent->ionic->hydrogen->hydrophobic interaction->van der waals attraction
-atoms share valence electrons
-strength depends on # of shared electrons
-single bond<double bond<triple bond
attraction of electrons towards an atom making the atom a negative ion
shares electrons equally (H2)
unequal sharing of electrons (H2O)
attraction of oppositely charged ions
ex: Na donates an electron & Cl accepts it
NaCl redox rx, both shells are filled
-weak electrical attractions
very weak, aqueous
van der waals
very wek electrical attractions due to charge asymmetry
making and breaking of chemical bonds
-pure water is a solvent
-only common molecule that exists in 3 states
-forms hydrogen bonds
-polar covalent molecule
-polar molecules and ions dissolve easily in water
-non polar molecules do NOT dissolve easily
-frozen is less dense than liquid
stick to surface
measure of difficulty to break the surface of water
forms in ice with water molecules
(MW) sun of atoms weight, 1 mol
# of mols solute/liter
ex:glucose C6H12O6 MW=342 g/L=1 mol glucose
what is the pH of blood?
what is the pH of rain water?
[H+] of 10^-7 mol/L
1 pH unit=10 fold (change) [H+]
basic pH 14
neutral pH 7
acidic pH 1
take up or release of hydrogen [H+]
-minimizes changes in hydrogen and hydroxide ions
-range pH 4-6
what is dependent on pH?
branch of chemistry concerned with "energy changes"
what is a close system?
what is an open system?
what is the 1st law of thermodynamics?
"transfered and transformed"
-energy cannot be created nor destroyed
-total energy in the universe remains constant
-energy is lost as heat
what's 2nd law of thermodynamics
-energy transformations proceed spontaneously to convert matter
a disorder that increases spontaneously
more ordered->less stable
less ordered->more stable
capacity to do work
energy of motion
where do photosynthetic organisms capture energy from?
what do organisms utilize?
Gibbs, free energy
free energy=total energy-absolute temperature * entropy
requires input of energy
products>free energy than reactants
+ change in G
happens on its own
products<free energy than reactants
- change in G
if the change of G does not equal zero...
if the change of G do equal zero...
death, no work occurs
the measure of instability
high potential energy
low potential energy
backbone of biomolecules
bonding of C+H,N,O,P,S
proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, & lipids
how many covalent bonds can carbon form?
Is carbon branches?
molecules backbone or skeleton
composed of only C+H
tend to make hydrophilic
involved in chemical reactions
"water fearing" non polar
"water loving" polar
what are the 6 functional groups?
monomer in, water out
water in, monomer out (adding H2O)
Is there rotation around a peptide bond?
How many protein conformation levels are there?
4...proteins can be broken down into these 4 basic levles
what are the 4 levels of protein conformations?
1.Primary structure-polypeptide bonds
2.Secondary structure- polypeptides joining with hydrogen bonds
3. tertiary structure-interactions determine structure; they are diverse
4. Quaternary structure- intramolecular or intermolecular
loss of structure and function; unfolded
speeds up chemical reaction
protein that functions as a catalyst
in a secondary structure, what are the 2 structures protein backbones can form?
a helix- backbone is coiled or
a B-pleated sheet- peptide chain bends 180 and then folds
what are bonds tertiary structures form?
sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide bond
depends on primary structure; formation of helices and pleated sheets in a polypeptide
over all 3 dimensional shape of a polypeptide; bonds and other interactions between R-groups; depends on primary and secondary
van der waals interaction; shape produced by combionations of polypeptides; bonds and interactions between R-groups; depends on primary, secondary and tertiary structure; ionic and hydrogen bonds form between polypeptide chains
catalytic center, where catalysis occurs; where substrates bind and react
location other than the active site where molecules bind
amount of free energy requred to reach the transition state
enzyme of metabolic pathway..
2. "substrate specific"
3. steps cannot be skipped
4.any enzyme absent=reaction stops
5. each substrate becomes a product
6. synthetic and degradative pathways can interact
7. reactions can be regulated
8. most globular proteins
9. speed up reaction time
10. not permanetly altered -> recycled
11. -ase. when ending in this, usually an enzyme
regulation in enzyme activity..
1. enzyme concentration
hold themselves together
hold themselves and other neighboring molecules together
COOH.. at the end of chain
atoms or group of atoms; also called side chains ( the element that branches downwards below the chain)
binds to enzymes and decreases its activity
competes with substrate for active site
contains deoxyribose sugar
ATGC- contains thymine
double strand, helix
contains ribose sugar
AUGC- contains uracil
single strand, no helix
what are the 3 components of a nucleotide?
3. nitrogen bases (purines and pyrimidines)
adenin and guanine
6 fused to 5 member ring
thymine, cytosine, uracil
6 member ring
has OH, found in RNA
has H, found in DNA
1. parallel in space
2. each strand runs antiparallel
-standard directionally- 5 down to 3, 3 down to 5
-strands are held together by hydrogen bonds btwn nitrogenous bases
- runs in opposite direction
-only purine-pyrimidine pairs fit inside double helix
complementary base pairing in DNA helix...
G->C (guanine to cytosine) 3 bonds
A->T ( adenine to thymine)2 bonds
*G->C is harder bond to break
when do strands seperate?
dna strands seperate when hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs are broken
DNA makes their own template...
1. strand separation
2. base pairing
the original molecule has been copied, semi conservative replication
wheres the hairpin found?
in RNA, stem and loop
does RNA have a helix?