Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 Test

110 terms by annakoutelas 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

anatomy

study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts

physiology

study of how the body and its parts work or function

gross anatomy

large structures
easily observable

microscopic anatomy

very small structures
can only be viewed with a microscope

organ system overview

keeps inside in
forms the external body covering
protects deeper tissue from injury
includes hair and nails

skeletal

protects and supports body organs
provides muscle attachment for movement

muscular system

produces movement
maintains posture

nervous system

fast-acting control system
responds to internal and external change

endocrine system

secretes regulatory hormones

cardiovascular

transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart
oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste

lymphatic system

returns fluids to blood vessels
cleanses the blood
involved in immunity

respiratory system

keeps blood supplied with oxygen
removes carbon dioxide

digestive

breaks down food
allows for nutrient absorption into blood
eliminates indigestible material

urinary system

eliminates nitrogenous wastes
maintains acid-base balance
regulates water and electrolytes

reproductive system

produces offspring

necessary life functions

-maintain boundaries
-movement
locomotion
movement of substances
-responsiveness
ability to sense changes and react
-digestion
break-down and absorption of nutrients
-metabolism-chemical reactions within body
produces energy
makes body structures
-excretion
eliminates waste from metabolic reactions
-reproduction
produces future generation
-growth
increases cell size and number of cells

survival needs

nutrients- chemicals for energy and cell building
includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals
oxygen- required for chemical reactions

survival needs continued

water-60 to 80 percent of body wieght
metabolic reaction is provided here
stable body temperature
atmospheric pressure- must be appropiate

homeostasis

maintenace of a stable internal environment
-dynamic state of equilibrium

what is homeostasis necessary for?

normal body functioning and to sustain life

homeostatic imbalance?

a disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease

maintaining homeostasis- the body communicates through what?

neural and hormonal control systems

maintaining homeostasis -receptor

-responds to changes in the environment stimuli
-sends information to control center

maintaining homeostasis- control center

-determines set point
-analyzes information
-determines appropriate response

maintaining homeostasis- effector

-provides a means for response to the stimuli

negative feedback

-includes most homeostatic control mechanisms
-shuts off original stimulus, pr reduces its intensity
-works like a household thermostat

positive feedback

-increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther
-int he body this only occurs in blood clotting and during childbirth

language of anatomy

special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding

language of anatomy- exact terms are used for:

position
direction
regions
structures

sagittal section

divides the body or organ into left and right parts

median or midsagittal

section divides the body (or organ) into equal left and right parts

frontal section or coronal

divides the body (or organ) into anterior and posterior parts

tranverse or cross section

divides the body (or organ) into superior and inferior parts

dorsal body cavity

-cranial cavity houses the brain
-spinal cavity houses the spinal cord

ventral body cavity

thoracic cavity houses heart, lungs and other
-abdominopelvic cavity houses digestive system and most urinary system organs

matter

anything that occupies space and has mass

energy

the ability to do work

energy types

chemical
electrical- cells, nervous system, membrane
mechanical
radiant-travels in waves, magnomagnetic system, rays

elements

fundamental units of matter

96 % of the body is made from four elements

-substances that will be broken down with normal chemicals
-hydrogen
-carbon
-oxygen
-nitrogen

atoms

building blocks of elements

need constant supply of energy to live

potential energy-stored energy

nucleus

-protons
-neutrons

outside of nucleus

-electrons

atomic number

equal to the number of protons an atom contains

atomic mass

sum of protons and neutrons

isotopes

-have the same number of protons
-vary in number of neutrons

atomic weight of isotopes

-close to mass number of most abundant isotope
-atomic weight reflects natural isotope variation

radioisotope

-heavy isotope
-tends to be unstable
-decomposes to more stable isotope

radioactivity

process of spontaneous atomic decay

molecule

two or more like atoms combined chemically

compound

two or more different atoms combined chemically

atoms are united by chemical bonds

atoms dissociate from other atoms when chemical bonds are broken

electrons occupy what?

energy levels called electron shells
-each shell has distinct properties

electrons closest to nucleus are what?

most strongly attracted
-number of electrons has an upper limit
-shells closest to nucleus fill first

bonding involves interactions between electrons in the outer shell (valence shell)

full valence shells dont form bonds

atoms are stable (inert) when what?

when outermost shell is complete

atoms shells

shell 1- max 2
shell 2- max 9
shell 3- max 18

valence shell is what?

most likely to interact/bond

atoms will gain, lose, or share electrons to complete their outermost orbitals and reach a stable state

...

rule of eights:

-atoms are considered stable when their outermost orbital has 8 electrons
-the exception to this rule of eights is Shell 1, which can only hold 2 electrons

valence shells:

are not full and are unstable
-tend to gain, lose, or share electrons
allow for bond formation, which produces stable valence

ionic bonds:

form when elctrons are completely transferred from one atom to another

ions
-changed particles
anions-neg
cations-pos
either donate or accept electrons

...

most compounds formed by ionic bonds are salts

...

covalent bonds:

-atoms become stable through shared electrons
-single covalent bonds share one pair of electrons
-double convalent bonds share two pairs of electrons

hydrogen bonds:

-weak chemical bonds
-hydrogen is attracted to the negative portion of polar molecule
-provides attraction between molecules

synthesis reaction

-atoms or molecules combine
-energy is absorbed for bond formation

decomposition reaction

-molecule is broken down
-chemical energy is released

anabolic build- growth and repair/construction

catabolic- destructive processes/decomposition

exchange reaction-

-involves both synthesis and decomposition reactions
-switch is made between molecule parts and different molecules are made

organic compounds:

-contain carbon
-most are covalently bonded
-example: C6 H12O6 (glucose)

water:

-most abundant inorganic compound
-vital properties
-high heat capacity
- polarity/solvent properties
-chemical reactivity
-cushioning

things that affect rate of chemical reaction:

-increase kinetic energy
-increase temperature
-increase concentration
-decrease particle size
-presence of catalyst

salts: (calcium)

-easily dissociate into ions in the prescense of water
-vital to many body functions
-include electrolytes which conduct electrical currents
-chloride, potassium, electrolytes

acids:

-release hydrogen ions
-are proton donors

bases:

-release hydroxul ions
-are proton acceptors

neutralization reaction

-acids and bases react to form water and a salt

pH7

neutral

pH below 7

acidic

pH above 7

basic

buffers:

chemicals that can regulate pH change

carbohydrates:

-contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
-include sugars and starches
-classified according to size

monosaccharides-

simple sugars
( glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose

disaccharides-

2 simple sugars joined by dehydration synthesis

polysaccharides-

long-branching chains of linked simple sugars

carbs are simple sugars(monosaccharides)

...

monosaccharides vs disaccharides

glucose (1) fructose (2) galactose (3)

sucrose(1 plus 2) lactose (1 plus 3) maltose (1 plus 1)

functions of carbs:

structural purposes
genetic material
markers on cells

lipids-

contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
carbon and hydrogen outnumber oxygen
insoluble in water

carb classic example-glucose

starches-plants, poly-many

common lipids found in human body:

neutral fats(triglycerides)
-found in fat deposits
-composed of fatty acids and glycerol
-source of stored energy
phospholipids
-form cell membrane
steroids
-include cholestorol, bile salts, vitamin D, and some hormones

lipids-cholesterol-

basis for all steroids made in the body

proteins:

made of amino acids
---contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur

proteins account for what?

over half of the body's organic matter

proteins provide what?

construction materials for body tissues

proteins play a vital role in what?

cell function

proteins have an amino acid structure:

contain an amine group
contain an acid group
vary only by R groupls

greater than 55 amino acids-protein

less than 55 amino accids-polypeptide

fibrous proteins:

structural proteins
appear in body structures
examples include collagen and keratin
stable

proteins can be fibrous(structural) or globular (functional) antibodies, hormones, enzymes

...

globular proteins:

functional proteins
function as antibodies or enzymes
can be denatured

enzymes act as what?

biological catalysts

enzymes increase the rate of what?

chemical reactions

nucleic acid provides what?

blueprint for life

nucleotide bases:

A or adenine
T or thymine
G or guanine
C or cytosine
U or oracil
(make DNA and RNA)
(dictate protein structure)

enzymes are catalysts but not consumed in the process/not used up

...

deoxyribonucleic acid: (DNA)

-organized by complimentary bases to form double helix
-replicates before cell division
-provides instructions for every protein in the body

adenosine triphosphate (ATP):

-chemical energy used by all cells
-energy is released by breaking high energy phosphate bond
-ATP is replenished by oxidation of food fuels

What breaks bonds?

hydrolisis

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set