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physical change

alters only state or appearance; not composition (subliming or dissolving)

Chemical change

a change that occurs when a substance changes composition by forming one or more new substances (rusting, changing color, burning)

physical properties

characteristics displayed without changing composition

chemical properties

characteristics displayed only by changing composition via chemical change

kinetic energy

energy due to motion, including thermal energy

thermal energy

energy due to temperature

potential energy

energy due to position or composition

work

action of force through distance

energy

capacity to do work; can be converted from one form to another

law of conservation of mass

energy is neither created nor destroyed

What are the properties of matter determined by?

the atoms and molecules that compose it

atoms

submicroscopic particles; fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter

molecules

2 or more atoms attached together in a specific geometrical arrangement; come in different shapes and patterns and are made up of atoms

chemistry

science that seeks to understand behavior of matter by studying behavior of atoms and molecules

liquids

particles closely packed, but have some ability to move around; fixed volume but not shape, incompressible, able to flow

amorphous solids

solids with particles randomly distributed without any long range pattern (plastic, glass, or charcoal)

crystalline solids

solids with particles arranged in patterns with long range repeating order (salt, diamonds, sugar)

solids

particles packed tightly together in fixed positions; can vibrate but not move, fixed shape and volume, do not flow and are not compressible

matter

substance that has and occupies volume and has mass; classified by it's state and composition

scientific theory

things in nature are the way they are and behave the way they do. explains WHY

scientific law

statement that summarizes all past observations and predicts future observations; describes what happens; can be tested by experiments

experiment

set of highly controlled procedures designed to test whether an idea about nature is valid; generates observations that either validate or invalidate hypothesis

hypothesis

tentative interpretation or explanation for observation; can be tested to be proven wrong

quantitative

observation that includes numbers

qualitative

observation of characteristics

gases

particles have a lot of room to move around each other; take on shape and volume of container; compressible

composition

types of particles, arrangement of particles, attractions and attachments between particles

pure substance

first component, composition doesn't change from one sample to another

mixture

2 or more components, composition may vary from one sample to another

elements

can not be chemically broken down into simpler substances

compounds

can be chemically broken down into simpler substances

homogenous mixture

uniform composition throughout; also called a solution (salt water)

heterogenous mixture

composition varies throughout (too much salt, some falls to the bottom, leaving uneven composition)

filtration

separation technique involving a funnel

distillation

bunson burner heats flask, sending gas down a tube while it cools into another flask

Mega

M, 1,000,000

Kilo

k, 1,000

deci

d, .1

centi

c, .01

milli

m, .001

micro

.000001

nano

n, .000000001

2.54

1in= ?cm

lbs to grams

1lb=453.59 grams

1.057

1 liter ? quarts

density formula

g/ml or g/cm^3

how do you round when measuring?

round one digit past the graduation mark

intensive properties

amount of substance (used to identify substances)

Extensive properties

amount of substance (cannot be used to identify substances)

density

ratio of mass to volume

significant figures

non placeholding digits

exact number

value known with complete certainty

accuracy

a description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured

precision

how close a series of measurements are to one another

dimensional analysis

using units as a guide to solve problems (always include units in calculations)

conversion factor

fractional quantity with units converting from unit on bottom and converting to unit on top

random error

unpredictable error with no obvious pattern

systematic error

a repeated error which affects every measurement to the same degrees - caused by a technique problem or instruments.

1.093

How many km are in a mile?

Law of multiple proportions

WHEN 2 ELEMENTS (A+B) FORM 2 DIFFERENT COMPOUNDS, MASSES OF B THAT COMBINE WITH 1g OF A CAN BE EXPRESSED AS A RATIO OF SMALL WHOLE NUMBERS.

Law of definite proportions

the law that states that a chemical compound always contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by weight or mass

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