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adventitious sound

abnormal sounds

aphasia

loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage

apical impulse

Where the apex of the heart touches the anterior chest wall at approximately the fourth to fifth intercostal space just medial to the left midclavicular line

bruit

blowing sound created by the narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel, the narrowing creates turbulence causing a blowing or swishing sound

capillary refill

used to determine how quickly blood returns to the capillaries in the nailbeds after they have been blanched;

clubbing

bulging of the tissues at the and nail base due to insufficient oxygenation at the periphery resulting from conditions such as chronic emphysema and congenital heart disease

cyanosis

bluish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes due to tissues near the skin surface being low in oxygen

distention

swelling usually caused by intestinal gas, a tumor, or fluid in the abdominal cavity

erythema

red discoloration of the skin due to localized vasodilation

excoriation

skin breakdown characterized by redness and skin sloughing

indurated

hardened

integument

consisting of the skin, hair, scalp, and nails

occlusion

blockage

orthopnea

shortness of breath

ototoxicity

injury to auditory nerve

palpitation

involves the use of hands to touch body parts to make sensitive assessments

paralytic ileus

Absent sounds upon auscultation of bowel sounds indicating a lack of peristalsis possibly due to late stage bowel obstruction or peritonitis.

peritonitis

Peritonitis is an inflammation (irritation) of the peritoneum

PERRLA

pupils equal, round, reactive to light, and accommodation

petechiae

pinpoint sized red or purple spots on the skin caused by small hemorrhages in the skin layers; they do not blanch, but may indicate serious blood-clotting disorders, drug reactions, or liver disease.

phlebitis

an inflammation of a vein that occurs commonly after trauma to the vessel wall, infection, immobilization, and prolonged insertion of IV catheters;

point of maximal impulse PMI

same as apical impulse

pulse deficit

when the radial pulse is slower than the apical pulse because ineffective contractions fail to send pulse waves to the periphery;

stenosis

narrowing

striae

stretch marks

syncope

Partial or complete loss of consciousness with interruption of awareness of oneself and ones surroundings; circulatory arrest ex: due to heart rate or blood pressure

thrill

a continuous palpable sensation like the purring of a cat heard in heart murmurs; record intensity in the following grades:

turgor

the skin's elasticity

variscosities

swollen, tortuous veins common in older patients.

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