The study of patterns and rates of population change, including birth and death rates, migration trends, and evolving population distribution patterns.
A periodic and official count of a country's population.
A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land.
Arithmetic population density
The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit.
Physiologic population density
The number of people per unit area of arable land.
Structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education.
Graphic representation (profile) of a population showing the percentages of the total population by age and sex, normally in five-year groups.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime, as expressed for a total population.
Demographic transition (cycle)
Multistage model based on Western Europe's experiences of change in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization.
The time required for a population to double in size.
Cumulative or compound growth (of a population) over a given time period.
Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.
Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths per 1000 individuals per year. Natural increase of a population does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements.
The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase.
Stationary population level (SPL)
The level at which a national population ceases to grow.
A compass direction such as north or south.
Directions such as left, right, forward, backward, up, and down
The physical distance between two points usually measured in miles or kilometers.
Distance measured, not in linear terms such as miles or kilometers, but in terms such as cost and time.
Negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location.
Positive conditions and perceptions that effectively attract people to new locales from other areas.
Activity (action) space
The space within which daily activity occurs.
Movement-for example, nomadic migration-that has a closed route repeated annually or seasonally
Movement among a definite set of places.
Movements that are taken based on a seasonal basis.
A change in residence intended to be permanent.
Human migration flows in which the movers have not choice but to relocate.
Population movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity, not because they are forced to move.
Migration flow within a nation-state, such as ongoing westward and southward movements in the United States.
Migration across an international border.
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city
Migration back to an original area in which people had left (e.g., migration increases after natural disasters, yet many eventually return after a time).
The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
The various degenerative effects of distance on human spatial structures and interactions.
People who have been dislocated involuntarily from their original place of settlement.
Refugees encamped in a host country or host region while waiting for resettlement.
Refugees who have been substantially integrated into the host country or host region and who are thus seen as long-term visitors.
Refugees who have crossed one or more international boundaries during their dislocation, searching for asylum in a different country.
Refugees who have abandoned their town or village but not their country.
Laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state.
Eugenic population policy
Government policy designed to favor one racial sector over others.
Expansive population policy
Government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth.
Restrictive population policy
Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.
Negative population growth
The actual decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive diseases. When the death rate exceeds the birth rate.
Movement of individuals out of a population.