Water, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Minerals
List 4 Inorganic Compounds
Which Inorganic Compound is needed for to convert energy from food?
Which Inorganic Compound is needed to transport materials in an organism and for dilution of metabolic wastes?
Which Inorganic Compound is the original source of Carbon in an organism?
Which Inorganic Compound is any substance occurring naturally and is needed by living organisms?
When Like Substances are attracted to each other is called...?
When substances are attracted to different substances is it called...
Why can water be adhesive or cohesive?
Surface Tension caused by Polarity of Water.
Why can a rock skip across a pond or why can an insect walk on the water?
The Surface Tension of Water is created by water molecules attracting constantly to up to 4 bonds. What are these special bonds called?
Bonds with another molecule of water
What happens when a hydrogen bond in the water is broken?
What is the film or skin that we see across the water that allows humans to skip rocks across it or lets insects on walk upon it?
What is the measure of how difficult it is to break or to stretch the surface of a liquid?
What is the movement of water up a plant against gravity?
What causes capillarity in the tubes of the plants?
Water molecules bond with themselves constantly in the xylem (tube) of the plant and pull themselves up the tube. What is this an example of?
Water molecules are attracted to the xylem (tube) also when they are being transported through the plant. What is this an example of?
What is another term for an organic compound?
Carbon will link with other carbon atoms
Why is Carbon important in reference to bonds?
It can form rings or chains
Why is Carbon important in reference to its forms?
Carbon can form up to 4 different covalent bonds.
Why is Carbon important with COVALENT BONDS?
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
List the 4 Organic Compounds.
What are the tiny, individual units that come together to make up a macromolecule?
What are the large organic compounds that are created from monomers?
What is the monomer of Nucleic Acid?
What is the polymer of Nucleic Acid?
Phosphate, Sugar, and a base
What is nucleotide made up of?
DNA and RNA
What are the two types of Nucleic Acids?
What type of Nucleic Acid is about your genetic makeup?
What type of Nucleic Acid makes proteins in the body of an organism?
Helps Cell Growth and Repair
What's a function of a protein involving cells?
Produce enzymes, hormones, and antibodies
What's a function of a protein involving production of materials?
Normal cell function
What's a function of a protein involving cell function?
What is the monomer of a protein?
What type of bonds are referred to with Amino Acids?
2 Amino Acids are held by a peptide bond.
What does it mean to have a dipeptide bond?
3 or more Amino Acids are held together by peptide bonds
What does it mean to have a polypeptide bond?
What is a protein that acts like a catalyst?
What is something other than an enzyme but works like a catalyst?
The substance an enzyme works on is called...?
Lock and Key
What thought about enzymes says that the enzyme fits into the substrate like a key into a lock?
Induced Fit Model
What thought about enzymes says that the enzyme has to be wiggled or eased into the substrate?
What is the term for the point where the enzyme and substrate meet?
Fats, oils, wax, and steroids
What are the 4 types of lipids?
They are not soluble in water.
What is a characteristic of a lipid?
Stored energy is known as...?
Fatty Acid and Glycerol
What are the monomers of fats?
What state of matter at fats at room temperature?
What group of living organisms make fats?
What state of matter are oils at room temperature?
Where do oils come from?
For protection and to help reduce water loss.
What are waxes used for?
Are steroids soluble in water?
Nerve tissue, hormones, plant poisons, and frog venom.
Name 4 places steroids occur naturally.
Quick energy foods are known as...?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
What 3 elements are in carbohydrates?
1, 2, 1
What is the ratio of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen atoms in a carbohydrate?
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Polysaccharides
What are the 3 categories of carbohydrates?
Simple sugars like glucose, fructose and galactose are known as...?
What category of carbohydrates has the chemical formula C6H12O6?
The structural formulas are different in their bonding spots for monosaccharides. What are they known as?
Disaccharides combine how many monosaccharide molecules during dehydration synthesis?
What is the chemical formula of a disaccharide?
Dehydration Synthesis (Loss of one H2O molecule to synthesize)
Why is the chemical formula of a disaccharide C12H22O11 and not C12H24O12?
In creation of disacchardies, the loss of 1 water molecule is known as what?
To break disaccharides apart, the addition of 1 water molecule is used to break apart the disacchardie back into its two monosacchardies. What is this known as?
Sucrose (Table Sugar)
Glucose + Fructose =
Lactose (Milk Sugar)
Glucose + Galactose =
Maltose (Malt Sugar)
Glucose + Glucose =
3 or more monosaccharides can combine together to form what is known as a...?
What is a big chain of glucose that animals use to convert into glycogen?
What do animals convert starch into?
What is starch a big chain of?
The liver and muscles
Where is glycogen stored?
What organisms produce cellulose?
Where in the plants is the cellulose?
Cellulose is a chain of what monosaccharide?
Helps the intestines move food
Cellulose helps make up fiber. What does fiber do for the human body?
Movement of molecules along concentration gradient
What is passive transport?
Normal Flow of Molecules
What is a concentration gradient?
Molecule flow from a greater concentration to a lower concentration
What is the normal flow of molecules?
Flow of Molecules from greater concentration to lower concentration
What is passive transport in reference to Molecule Flow?
Osmosis and Diffusion
What are 2 types of passive transport?
What is the movement of molecules, ions, atoms, etc. from an area of greater concentration to an area of lower concentration?
What is the movement of water across a cell membrane from greater concentration to lower concentration?
The movement of molecules from lower concentration to a higher concentration.
What is active transport?
Active Transport requires what which isn't required in Passive transport.
Movement of molecules in and out of cells for survival.
What is the same about active transport and passive transport?
What type of reaction releases energy?
What type of reaction stores/absorbs energy?
What is the energy needed to start a chemical reaction?
Water is usually combined with something. In fact, it's usually composed of two or more elements/compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined. What is this referring to?
Earth's Atmosphere (It's a mixture of gases)
What is an example of a mixture?
Mixtures whose components are evenly spread throughout are known as...?
Are all mixtures solutions?
Are all solutions mixtures?
Salt is dissolved into a saltwater solution. What is the solute?
Salt is dissolved into a saltwater solution. What is the solvent?
The substance that is dissolved is known as...?
The substance that a solute dissolves in is known as a...?
What gives water the ability to dissolve ionic compounds and other molecules?
What is the name of a material that doesn't dissolve in water, but instead separates into smaller pieces that won't settle out?
Does a hydrogen ion have a positive or negative charge?
Doe a hydroxide ion (OH) have a positive or negative charge?
What scale ranges from 0 to 14 and tests the acidity of a substance?
What does the pH scale indicate the concentration of in a solution?
What is water's measure on the pH Scale?
At the concentration of Hydrogen Ions and Hydroxide Ions, water becomes neutral. What does this mean water's measure will be?
A measure below what on the pH scale means a substance is acidic?
Between what numbers are acidic on the pH scale?
Numbers above what number are bases on the pH Scale?
What numbers go with bases on the pH Scale?
More Hydrogen Ions
Why would a substance be acidic?
More Hydroxide Ions
Why would a substance be more basic?
Higher pH numbers equals a more...?
The pH reading of 4 has how many times as more hydrogen ions than a reading of pH 5?
The strongest acidic values on the pH values are between what numbers?
What is an example of a strong acid on the pH scale?
An acid is any compound forming what kind of ions in solutions?
Bases are compounds producing what kind of ions in solutions?
Base solutions are also known by what other name?
What is in a lower concentration in a basic solution?
Strong bases like lye are usually range between what numbers on the pH Scale?
6.5 and 7.5
Fluids in the human body usually have a pH reading between?
Weak Acids or bases can prevent sharp, sudden pH changes in the human body. This helps maintain homeostasis, but the acids and bases have a name. What are they called?
Cellular Respiration is an example of what type of reaction?
Photosynthesis is an example of what type of reaction?