AP Human Geography Chapter 2 Vocabulary

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Rubenstien, The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10th edition Companion Website

Agricultural Density

The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.

Agricultural Revolution

The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.

Arithemetic Density

The total number of people divided by the total land area.

Census

A complete enumeration of a population.

Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in society.

Crude Death Rate (CDR)

The total number of deaths in a year per 1,000 people alive in society.

Demographic Transition

The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.

Demography

The scientific study of population characteristics.

Dependency Ratio

The number of people under the age of 15 and over the age of 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force.

Doubling Time

The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

Ecumene

The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.

Epidemiologic Transition

Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.

Epidemiology

Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality.

Industrial Revolution

A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.

Life Expectancy

The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.

Medical Revolution

Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to poorer countriesof Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.

Natural Increase Rate (NIR)

The percentage of growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.

Overpopulation

The number of people in an area exceed the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.

Pademic

Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.

Physiological Density

The number of people per unit of arable land, which is suitable for agriculture.

Population Pyramid

A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.

Sex Ratio

The number of males per 100 females in the population.

Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.

Zero Population Growth (ZPG)

A decline in the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.

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