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The tabletop exposure rate during fluoroscopy shall not exceed
A.
5 mR/min.
B.
10 R/min.
C.
10 mR/hr.
D.
5 R/hr.

B.
10 R/min.

The following procedure can be employed to better demonstrate the carpal scaphoid:
1. elevate hand and wrist 20°.
2. place wrist in ulnar deviation.
3. angle CR 20° distally (toward fingers).

B.
1 and 2 only

Which of the following groups of exposure factors would be most appropriate for an adult intravenous pyelogram (IVP)?
A.
300 mA, 0.02 second, 72 kVp
B.
300 mA, 0.01 second, 82 kVp
C.
150 mA, 0.01 second, 94 kVp
D.
100 mA, 0.03 second, 82 kVp

A.
300 mA, 0.02 second, 72 kVp

Bone densitometry is often performed to
1. measure degree of bone (de)mineralization.
2. evaluate results of osteoporosis treatment/therapy.
3. evaluate condition of soft tissue adjacent to bone.

1. measure degree of bone (de)mineralization.
2. evaluate results of osteoporosis treatment/therapy.

An exposure was made using 600 mA and 18 ms. If the mA is changed to 400, which of the following exposure times would most closely approximate the original radiographic density?
A.
16 ms
B.
0.16 second
C.
27 ms
D.
0.27 second

C.
27 ms

Which of the following statements regarding film badges is (are) correct?
1. Film badges should be read quarterly.
2. Film badges must not leave the workplace.
3. Film badges measure quantity and quality of radiation exposure

2,3

An exposure was made using 12 mAs and 60 kVp. If the kVp was changed to 70 to obtain longer-scale contrast, what should be the new mAs?
A.
3
B.
6
C.
18
D.
24

B.
6

When involuntary motion must be considered, the exposure time may be cut in half if the kVp is
A.
doubled.
B.
increased by 15%.
C.
increased by 25%.
D.
increased by 35%

B.
increased by 15%.

Which of the following is (are) possible long-term somatic effects of radiation exposure?
1. Nausea and vomiting
2. Carcinogenesis
3. Leukemia

2,3

Grid interspace material can be made of
1. plastic.
2. lead.
3. aluminum.

1,3

As grid ratio is increased,
A.
the scale of contrast becomes longer.
B.
the scale of contrast becomes shorter.
C.
radiographic density increases.
D.
radiographic distortion decreases

B.
the scale of contrast becomes shorter.

A particular mAs, regardless of the combination of mA and time, will reproduce the same radiographic density. This is a statement of the
A.
line focus principle.
B.
inverse square law.
C.
reciprocity law.
D.
law of conservation of energy

C.
reciprocity law

Using a short (25-30 inches) SID with a large size (14 x 17 inches) image receptor is likely to
A.
increase the scale of contrast.
B.
increase the anode heel effect.
C.
cause malfunction of the AEC.
D.
cause premature termination of the exposure.

B.
increase the anode heel effect.

Diseases whose mode of transmission is through the air include
1. tuberculosis.
2. mumps.
3. rubeola.

1, 2, and 3

According to the NCRP, the annual occupational whole-body dose equivalent limit for students under age 18 is
A.
1 mSv
B.
50 mSv
C.
150 mSv
D.
500 mSv

A.
1 mSv

Patient dose increases as fluoroscopic
A.
FOV increases.
B.
FOV decreases.
C.
FSS increases.
D.
FSS decreases

B.
FOV decreases.

Which of the following effects does an antibiotic have on the body?
A.
Decreases pain
B.
Helps delay clotting
C.
Increases urine output
D.
Combats bacterial growth

D.
Combats bacterial growth

In a PA projection of the chest being used for cardiac evaluation, the heart measures 15.2 cm between its widest points. If the magnification factor is known to be 1.3, what is the actual diameter of the heart?
A.
9.7 cm
B.
11.7 cm
C.
19.7 cm
D.
20.3 cm

B.
11.7 cm

For the average patient, the central ray for a lateral projection of a barium-filled stomach should enter
A.
midway between the midcoronal line and the anterior abdominal surface.
B.
midway between the vertebral column and the lateral border of the abdomen.
C.
at the midcoronal line at the level of the iliac crest.
D.
perpendicular to the level of L2

A.
midway between the midcoronal line and the anterior abdominal surface.

Fractional-focus tubes, with a 0.3-mm focal spot or smaller, have special application in
A.
magnification radiography.
B.
fluoroscopy.
C.
tomography.
D.
image intensification

A.
magnification radiography

The effect described as differential absorption is
1. responsible for radiographic contrast.
2. a result of attenuating characteristics of tissue.
3. minimized by the use of high kVp.

1, 2, and 3

Using a multifield image intensifier tube, which of the following input phosphor diameters will provide the greatest magnification?
A.
35 cm
B.
25 cm
C.
17 cm
D.
12 cm

D.
12 cm

Medical and dental radiation accounts for what percentage of the general public's exposure to man-made radiation?
A.
10%
B.
50%
C.
75%
D.
90%

D.
90%

A parallel-plate ionization chamber receives a particular charge as x-ray photons travel through it. This is the operating principle of which of the following devices?
A.
Automatic exposure control
B.
Image intensifier
C.
Cine film camera
D.
Spot film camera

A.
Automatic exposure control

The principal function of filtration in the x-ray tube is to reduce
A.
patient skin dose.
B.
operator exposure.
C.
scattered radiation.
D.
image noise

A.
patient skin dose

The principal function of filtration in the x-ray tube is to reduce
A.
patient skin dose.
B.
operator exposure.
C.
scattered radiation.
D.
image noise.

A.
patient skin dose

The steeper the straight-line portion of a characteristic curve for a particular film, the
1. slower the film speed.
2. higher the film contrast.
3. greater the exposure latitude

2. higher the film contrast.

Which apparatus is needed for the construction of a sensitometric curve?
1. Penetrometer
2. Densitometer
3. Electrolytic canister

1. Penetrometer
2. Densitometer

If the exposure rate to an individual standing 2.0 m from a source of radiation is 15 R/min, what will be the dose received after 2 minutes at a distance of 5 m from the source?
A.
1.2 R
B.
2.4 R
C.
4.8 R
D.
9.6 R

C.
4.8 R

A radiographer has recently joined your staff. You are aware that this individual has had her ARRT certification revoked. Realizing that your state requires certification, you speak to a supervisor about the matter. Your supervisor replies that he knows but made an exception "because we are so short staffed." You should
A.
report this to the next supervisor in charge.
B.
report this to the facility administrator.
C.
report this directly to the ARRT.
D.
do and/or say nothing

C.
report this directly to the ARRT

The advantages of using nonionic, water-soluble contrast media include
1. cost-containment benefits.
2. low toxicity.
3. fewer adverse reactions.

C.
2 and 3 only

A focal spot size of 0.3 mm or smaller is essential for which of the following procedures?
A.
Bone radiography
B.
Magnification radiography
C.
Tomography
D.
Fluoroscopy

B.
Magnification radiography

The brightness level of the fluoroscopic image can vary with
1. milliamperage.
2. kilovoltage.
3. patient thickness

1,2,3

An exposure was made using 300 mA, 0.04-second exposure, and 85 kVp. Each of the following changes will decrease the radiographic density by one-half except a change to
A.
1/50-second exposure.
B.
72 kVp.
C.
10 mAs.
D.
150 mA

C.
10 mAs.

Which of the following personnel radiation monitors will provide an immediate reading?
A.
TLD
B.
Film badge
C.
Lithium fluoride chips
D.
Pocket dosimete

D.
Pocket dosimete

Which projection(s) of the abdomen would be used to demonstrate pneumoperitoneum?
1. Right lateral decubitus
2. Left lateral decubitus
3. Upright

2 and 3 only

Types of moving grid mechanisms include
1. oscillating.
2. reciprocating.
3. synchronous.

1. oscillating.
2. reciprocating

Using a multifield image intensifier tube, which of the following input phosphor diameters will require the highest patient dose?
A.
35 cm
B.
25 cm
C.
17 cm
D.
12 cm

D.
12 cm

Radiation dose to personnel is reduced by which of the following exposure control cord guidelines?
1. Exposure cords on fixed equipment must be very short.
2. Exposure cords on mobile equipment should be fairly long.
3. Exposure cords on fixed and mobile equipment should be of the coiled expandable type.

1,2

In myelography, the contrast medium is generally injected into the
A.
cisterna magna.
B.
individual intervertebral disks.
C.
subarachnoid space between the first and second vertebrae.
D.
subarachnoid space between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae

D.
subarachnoid space between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.

One advantage of digital imaging in fluoroscopy is the ability to perform "road-mapping." Road-mapping

1. keeps the most recent fluoroscopic image on the screen.

2. aids in the placement of guidewires and catheters.

3. reduces the need for continuous x-ray exposure to the patien

1,2,3

Biologic material irradiated under hypoxic conditions is
A.
more sensitive than when irradiated under oxygenated conditions.
B.
less sensitive than when irradiated under anoxic conditions.
C.
less sensitive than when irradiated under oxygenated conditions.
D.
unaffected by the presence or absence of oxygen

C.
less sensitive than when irradiated under oxygenated conditions.

The term used to describe expectoration of blood from the bronchi is
A.
hemoptysis.
B.
hematemesis.
C.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
D.
bronchitis.

A.
hemoptysis

A device used to ensure reproducible radiographs, regardless of tissue density variations, is the
A.
phototimer.
B.
penetrometer.
C.
grid.
D.
rare earth screen

A.
phototimer.

Which of the following is a functional study used to demonstrate the degree of AP motion present in the cervical spine?
A.
Open-mouth projection
B.
Moving mandible AP
C.
Flexion and extension laterals
D.
Right and left bending AP

C.
Flexion and extension laterals

Which of the following result(s) from restriction of the x-ray beam?
1. Less scattered radiation production
2. Less patient hazard
3. Less radiographic contrast

B.
1 and 2 only

In the posterior oblique position of the cervical spine, the central ray should be directed
A.
parallel to C4.
B.
perpendicular to C4.
C.
15° cephalad to C4.
D.
15° caudad to C4

C.
15° cephalad to C4.

Which of the following is performed to check the correctness of the developing parameters?
A.
Densitometry
B.
A thorough cleaning of rollers
C.
A warm-up procedure
D.
Sensitometry

D.
Sensitometry

While performing mobile radiography on a patient, you note that the requisition is for a chest image to check placement of a Swan-Ganz catheter. A Swan-Ganz catheter is a (n)
A.
pacemaker.
B.
chest tube.
C.
IV catheter.
D.
urinary catheter.

C.
IV catheter

If a 6-inch OID is introduced during a particular radiographic examination, what change in SID will be necessary to overcome objectionable magnification?
A.
The SID must be increased by 6 inches.
B.
The SID must be increased by 18 inches.
C.
The SID must be decreased by 6 inches.
D.
The SID must be increased by 42 inches

D.
The SID must be increased by 42 inches

If the center photocell was selected for a lateral projection of the lumbar spine that was positioned with the spinous processes instead of the vertebral bodies centered to the grid, how would the resulting radiograph look?
A.
The image would be underexposed.
B.
The image would be overexposed.
C.
The image would be correctly exposed.
D.
An exposure could not be made

A.
The image would be underexposed

A radiographer would be in violation of the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) Code of Ethics for the Profession of Radiologic Technology for all of the following except
A.
failing to wear a lead apron when performing mobile radiography.
B.
failing to participate in continuing education.
C.
communicating information regarding suspected child abuse to the referring physician.
D.
refusing to participate in new and innovative technical procedures.

C.
communicating information regarding suspected child abuse to the referring physician.

What is the intensity of scattered radiation perpendicular to and 1 m from the patient, compared to the useful beam at the patient's surface?
A.
0.01%
B.
0.1%
C.
1.0%
D.
10.0%

The answer is B. 0.1%

EXPLANATION: The patient is the most important radiation scatterer during both radiography and fluoroscopy. In general, at 1 m from the patient, the intensity is reduced by a factor of 1000, to about 0.1% of the original intensity. Successive scatterings can render the intensity to unimportant levels.

A compensating filter is used to
A.
absorb the harmful photons that contribute only to patient dose.
B.
even out widely differing tissue densities.
C.
eliminate much of the scattered radiation.
D.
improve fluoroscopy.

B.
even out widely differing tissue densities

If the primary coil of the high-voltage transformer is supplied by 110 V and has 100 turns, and the secondary coil has 80,000 turns, what is the voltage induced in the secondary coil?
A.135 kV
B. 88 kV
C.135 V
D. 88 V

B.
88 kV

When comparing the male and female bony pelves, it is noted that the
1. male pelvis is deeper.
2. female pubic arch is greater than 90°.
3. female greater sciatic notch is wider.

1,2,3

If a patient received 4500 mrad during a 6-min fluoroscopic examination, what was the dose rate?
A. 0.75 rad/min
B. 2.7 rad/min
C. 7.5 rad/min
D. 27 rad/hr

A.
0.75 rad/min

A compression fracture of the posterolateral humeral head and associated with an anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint is called a(an)
A. Hill-Sachs defect.
B. Bankart lesion.
C. rotator cuff tear.
D. adhesive capsulitis.

A.
Hill-Sachs defect

The biggest advantage of coupling the image intensifier to the TV camera or CCD via a lens coupling device is its
A. compact size
B. durability
C. ability to accommodate cine and/or spot films
D. ease of maneuverability

C.
ability to accommodate cine and/or spot films

In which of the following projections is the talofibular joint best demonstrated?
A. AP
B. Lateral oblique
C. Medial oblique
D. Lateral

C.
Medial oblique

The innominate bone is located in the
A. middle cranial fossa.
B. posterior cranial fossa.
C. foot.
D. pelvis

D.
pelvis

In radiography of a large abdomen, which of the following is (are) effective way(s) to minimize the amount of scattered radiation reaching the IR?
1. Use of close collimation
2. Use of compression devices
3. Use of a low-ratio grid

1,2

Which of the following is an important consideration to avoid excessive metacarpophalangeal joint overlap in the oblique projection of the hand?
A. Oblique the hand no more than 45°.
B. Use a support sponge for the phalanges.
C. Clench the fist to bring the carpals closer to the IR.
D. Utilize ulnar flexion.

A.
Oblique the hand no more than 45°

Which of the following is proximal to the carpal bones?
A. Distal interphalangeal joints
B. Proximal interphalangeal joints
C. Metacarpals
D. Radial styloid process

D.
Radial styloid proces

All of the following affect patient dose except
A. inherent filtration.
B. added filtration.
C. source-image distance.
D. focal spot size

D.
focal spot size

Compared to that of the hyposthenic and asthenic habitus types, the gallbladder of a hypersthenic patient is most likely to be located
A. higher and more medial.
B. lower and more medial.
C. higher and more lateral.
D. lower and more lateral

C.
higher and more lateral.

Which of the following factors influence(s) the production of scattered radiation?
1. Kilovoltage level
2. Tissue density
3. Size of field

1,2,3

All of the following statements regarding hand washing and skin care are correct except
A. hands should be washed after each patient examination.
B. faucets should be opened and closed with paper towels.
C. hands should be smooth and free from chapping.
D. any cracks or abrasions should be left uncovered to facilitate healing.

D.
any cracks or abrasions should be left uncovered to facilitate healing

Greater latitude is available to the radiographer in which of the following circumstances?
1. Using high-kVp technical factors
2. Using a slow film-screen combination
3. Using a low-ratio grid

1,2,3

The dose of radiation that will cause a noticeable skin reaction is referred to as the
A. linear energy transfer (LET).
B. source-to-skin distance (SSD).
C. skin erythema dose (SED).
D. source-image distance (SID)

C.
skin erythema dose (SED).

In which type of monitoring device do photons release electrons by their interaction with air?
A. Film badge
B. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)
C. Pocket dosimeter
D. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter

C.
Pocket dosimeter

An exposure was made of a part using 300 mA and 0.06 second and using a 100-speed film-screen combination. An additional radiograph is requested using a 400-speed system to reduce motion unsharpness. Using 200 mA, all other factors remaining constant, what should be the new exposure time?
A. 0.02 second
B. 0.04 second
C. 0.45 second
D. 0.80 second

A.
0.02 second

Radiation safety requirements for fluoroscopic equipment include the following:
1. SSD at least 38 cm on stationary (fixed) equipment.
2. SSD at least 30 cm on mobile equipment.
3. high level/boost mode must have continuous audible signal.

1,2,3

The hard palate is formed by the
1. ethmoid bone.
2. maxillary bone.
3. palatine bone

2,3

Free air in the abdominal cavity is best demonstrated in which of the following positions?
A.
AP projection, left lateral decubitus position
B.
AP projection, right lateral decubitus position
C.
PA recumbent position
D.
AP recumbent position

A.
AP projection, left lateral decubitus position

The device that is used for the direct measurement of optical density is the
A.
sensitometer.
B.
densitometer.
C.
penetrometer.
D.
H&D curve.

B.
densitometer

Exposure latitude will be reduced in which of the following situations?

1. Use of low kilovoltage technical factors

2. Use of slow film/screen combinations

3. Use of high-speed film

1 and 3 only

The exposure rate to a body 4 feet from a source of radiation is 16 R/hr. What distance from the source would be necessary to decrease the exposure to 6 R/hr?
A.
5 feet
B.
7 feet
C.
10 feet
D.
14 feet

B.
7 feet

In an AP abdomen taken at 105-cm SID during an IV urography series, one renal shadow measures 9 cm in width. If the OID is 18 cm, what is the actual width of the kidney?
A.
5 cm
B.
7.5 cm
C.
11 cm
D.
18 cm

B.
7.5 cm

Which of the following will result if developer replenishment is inadequate?
A.
Images with excessively high contrast
B.
Images with excessively low contrast
C.
Images with excessively high density
D.
Dry, brittle films

B.
Images with excessively low contrast

Irradiation of macromolecules in vitro can result in
1. main chain scission.
2. cross-linking.
3. point lesions.

1,2,3

The amount of replenisher solution added as a film enters the automatic processor is related to the
1. size of the film.
2. temperature of the solution.
3. number of films processed

1,3

Ingestion of barium sulfate is contraindicated in which of the following situations?
1. Suspected perforation of a hollow viscus
2. Suspected large-bowel obstruction
3. Presurgical patients

1,2,3

What is the purpose of the thin layer of lead that is often located behind the rear intensifying screen in a image receptor?
A.
To prevent crossover
B.
To increase screen speed
C.
To diffuse light photons
D.
To prevent scattered radiation fog

D.
To prevent scattered radiation fog

If the entrance dose for a particular radiograph is 320 mR, the radiation exposure at 1 m from the patient will be approximately
A.
32 mR.
B.
3.2 mR.
C.
0.32 mR.
D.
0.032 mR

C.
0.32 mR.

Which of the following is (are) located on the posterior aspect of the femur?
1. Intercondyloid fossa
2. Intertrochanteric crest
3. Intertubercular groove

1,2

Which of the following will result as tube current increases?
A.
An increase in x-ray photon quality
B.
An increase in x-ray photon quantity
C.
A decrease in x-ray photon quality
D.
A decrease in x-ray photon quantity

B.
An increase in x-ray photon quantity

If the exposure rate at 3 feet from the fluoroscopic table is 40 mR/hr, what will be the exposure rate for 30 minutes at a distance of 5 feet from the table?
A.
7 mR
B.
12 mR
C.
14 mR
D.
24 mR

A.
7 mR inverse square law

The contrast media of choice for use in myelography are
A.
ionic non-water-soluble.
B.
ionic water-soluble.
C.
nonionic water-soluble.
D.
gas.

C.
nonionic water-soluble.

Which of the following contribute(s) to base-plus fog?
1. Chemical fog
2. Base tint
3. Background radiation

1,2,3

Each of the following statements regarding respiratory structures is true except
A.
the left lung has two lobes.
B.
the lower portion of the lung is the base.
C.
each lung is enclosed in peritoneum.
D.
the mainstem bronchus enters the lung hilum

C.
each lung is enclosed in peritoneum

During an intravenous urogram, the RPO position is used to demonstrate the
1. left kidney parallel to the IR.
2. right kidney parallel to the IR.
3. right kidney perpendicular to the IR.

1,3

The portion of a hypodermic needle that attaches to the syringe is termed its
A.
hub.
B.
gauge.
C.
length.
D.
bevel.

A.
hub.

Which of the following are recommended for the pregnant radiographer?
1. Continue monthly dosimeter readings.
2. Wear a second dosimeter under the lead apron.
3. Wear two dosimeters and switch their position periodically.

1,2

The secondary center of ossification in long bones is the
A.
periosteum.
B.
endosteum.
C.
epiphysis.
D.
diaphysis.

C.
epiphysis.

Which of the following can affect the amount of developer replenisher delivered per film in an automatic processor?
A.
Developer temperature
B.
Amount of film exposure
C.
Film size
D.
Processor capacity

C.
Film size

The medial oblique projection of the elbow demonstrates the
1. olecranon process within the olecranon fossa.
2. radial head free of superimposition.
3. coronoid process free of superimposition.

1,3

Which of the following pathologic conditions would require an increase in exposure factors?
A.
Pneumoperitoneum
B.
Obstructed bowel
C.
Renal colic
D.
Ascites

D.
Ascites

Fluids and medications are administered to patients intravenously for which of the following reasons?
1. To promote rapid response
2. To administer parenteral nutrition
3. To achieve a local effect

1,2

Which of the following interactions between x-ray photons and matter involves a high-energy photon and the ejection of an outer shell electron?
A.
Photoelectric effect
B.
Coherent scatter
C.
Compton scatter
D.
Pair production

C.
Compton scatter

Which of the following articulations participate in the formation of the elbow joint?

1. Between the humeral trochlea and the semilunar/trochlear notch

2. Between the capitulum and the radial head

3. The proximal radioulnar joint

1,2,3

The condition that allows blood to shunt between the right and left ventricles is called
A.
patent ductus arteriosus.
B.
coarctation of the aorta.
C.
atrial septal defect.
D.
ventricular septal defect.

D.
ventricular septal defect.

lateral radiograph of the cervical spine was made at 40 inches using 100 mA and 0.1-second exposure. If it is desired to increase the distance to 72 inches, what should be the new mA, all other factors remaining the same?
A.
B.
200
C.
300
D.
400

C.
300

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