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Human Growth Hormone (HGH)

Gland: Anterior Pituitary

Target Cells: cartilage, bone, skeletal muscle, liver, and other body tissues

Function: stimulates secretion of hormones that stimulate body growth and metabolism

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Gland: Anterior Pituitary

Target Cells: thyroid gland

Function: stimulates growth of thyroid gland and secretion of its hormones

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Gland: Anterior Pituitary

Target Cells: testes, ovaries

Function: stimulates sperm production, stimulates oocyte production and estrogen secretion

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Gland: Anterior Pituitary

Target Cells: testes, ovaries

Function: stimulates secretion of testosterone, triggers ovulation and stimulates secretion of estrogen and progesterone

Prolactin (PRL)

Gland: Anterior Pituitary

Target Cells: mammary gland

Function: stimulates production and secretion of milk

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Gland: Anterior Pituitary

Target Cells: adrenal cortex

Function: stimulates secretion of hormones by the adrenal cortex

Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)

Gland: Anterior Pituitary

Target Cells: skin

Function: darkens skin pigmentation

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

Gland: Posterior Pituitary

Target Cells: Kidneys

Function: decreases water lost in urine by returning water to the blood

Oxytocin (OT)

Gland: Posterior Pituitary

Target Cells: uterus and mammary glands

Function: stimulates uterine contractions and milk ejection during suckling

Thyroxine (T4)

Gland: Thyroid

Target Cells: most body cells

Function: increases metabolism and basal metabolic rate (BMR)

Triiodothyronine (T3)

Gland: Thyroid

Target Cells: most body cells

Function: increases metabolism and basal metabolic rate (BMR)

Calcitonin

Gland: Thyroid

Target Cells: osteoclast cells in bones

Function: decreases blood calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclasts

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Gland: Parathyroid

Target Cells: osteoclast cells in bones

Function: increases blood calcium levels by stimulating osteoclasts to break down bone matrix

Aldosterone (mineralcorticoid)

Gland: Adrenal Cortex (Zona Glomerulosa)

Target Cells: kidneys

Function: decreases sodium and water loss in urine by returning sodium and water to the blood

Cortisol (glucocorticoid)

Gland: Adrenal Cortex (Zona Fasciculata)

Target Cells: liver, muscle, and cells involved in body defenses

Function: increases resistance to stress, increases blood glucose levels, and decreases inflammation

Androgens

Gland: Adrenal Cortex (Zona Reticularis)

Target Cells: uterus, mammary glands, and other body cells involved in secondary sex characteristics

Function: insignificant in males, increases sex drive in females

Epinephrine

Gland: Adrenal Medulla

Target Cells: body cells involved in fight-or-flight response

Function: promotes fight-or-flight response

Norepinephrine (NE)

Gland: Adrenal Medulla

Target Cells: body cells involved in fight-or-flight response

Function: promotes fight-or-flight response

Insulin

Gland: Pancreas

Target Cells: most body cells

Function: decreases blood glucose levels by transporting glucose into body cells

Glucagon

Gland: Pancreas

Target Cells: liver

Function: increases blood glucose levels by stimulating liver to break down glycogen into glucose

Estrogen

Gland: Ovaries

Target Cells: uterus, mammary glands, and other body cells involved in female sexual characteristics

Function: stimulates development of female sex characteristics, helps regulate menstrual cycle

Progesterone

Gland: Ovaries

Target Cells: uterus, mammary glands, and other body cells involved in female sexual characteristics

Function: stimulates development of female sex characteristics, helps regulate menstrual cycle

Testosterone

Gland: Testes

Target Cells: testes, muscle, and other body cells involved in male sexual characteristics

Function: stimulates development of male sex characteristics, stimulates male sex drive, regulates sperm production

Melatonin

Gland: Pineal Gland

Target Cells: brain

Function: helps to set biological clock

Thymosin

Gland: Thymus

Target Cells: T cells (type of white blood cell involved in immune response)

Function: promotes the maturation of T cells for the immune response

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