number of protons for a given element, the order of an element in Mendeleyev's table of the elements
total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units
the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12
1 mole of a substance per liter of solution
a bond between to atoms where electrons are shared between the two
a bond between atoms where electrons are transferred between the two
anywhere where an unequal sharing of electrons occurs. There must be a difference in electronegativity.
equal sharing of electrons between two atoms
condensation (dehydration synthesis)
removing a water molecule in a reaction, allowing for a bond to be formed between two substances
adding water to a structure, causing the splitting of two compounds
a long chain of carbons with a carboxylic acid head. it can be saturated (with double bonds) or unsaturated
a term used to describe fatty acids. indicates that there are both hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends
Triglyceride (neutral fat)
a glycerol molecule bonded to 3 fatty acid chains
a glycerol molecule bonded to 2 fatty acid chains and a phosphate
a 3 carbon compound with 3 alcohol groups
alpha carbon of amino acid
the "middle carbon" in an amino acid. It is attached to the amino, carboxyl, and R groups, as well as one hydrogen
the side chain of an amino acid. It varies according to the RNA sequence read during translation.
the bond formed when linking one amino acid to another. It does not rotate, as there is a double bond-like nature to the carbon-nitrogen atom, due to an additional resonance structure. The link is between the amino and carboxy groups
major source of energy for cell reactions. It consists of three phosphates, a ribose, and an adenosine group.
a five carbon sugar. Contrast with deoxyribose, where one alcohol group is replaced with a hydrogen.
a polyatomic ion. Removing one creates energy for cell reactions.
A high energy bond between two phosphate groups.
where two macromolecules bind to one another. They must bind with both complimentary structures and similar non-covalent bonds.