# Unit 2: Population

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### Demography

The study of patterns and rates of population change, including birth and death rates, migration trends, and evolving population distribution patterns.

### census

a periodic and official count of a country's population

### Population Density

a measurement of the number of people per given unit of land

### Arithmetic Population Density

the population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the area unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit

### Physiologic Population Density

The number of people per unit area of arable land.

### Population Composition

structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties, education

### Age-sex Pyramid

Graphic representation (profile) of a population showing the percentages of the total population by age and sex, normally in five-year groups.

### Crude Birth Rate

the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population

### Crude Death Rate

The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.

### Infant Mortality

the death rate during the first year of life

### Total Fertility rate

The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life

### Demographic Transition

change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates

### Doubling Time

the time required for a population to double in size

### Exponential Growth

cumulative or compound growth of a population over a given time period

### Linear Growth

Growth in which a quantity increases by some fixed amount during each unit of time.

### Natural Increase

population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths; does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements

### Population Explosion

the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century

### Stationary Population Level

the level at which a national population ceases to grow

### Absolute Direction

the EXACT way or direction to get to something (north,south,east,west)

### Relative Direction

direction based on a person's perception of places

### Absolute Distance

the physical distance between two points usually measured in miles or kilometers

### relative distance

distance measured, not in linear terms such as miles or kilometers, but in terms such as cost and time.

### Push Factors

a factor that causes people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region

### Pull Factor

Factor that induces people to move to a new location.

### Activity space

the space within which daily activity occurs

### Cyclic Movement

movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally

movement among a definite set of places

### Seasonal Movement

Movements that are taken based on a seasonal basis.

### Migration

the movement of persons from one country or locality to another

### Emigration

migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)

### Forced Migration

human migration flows in which the movers have not choice but to relocate

### Voluntary Migration

movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity; not forced.

### Internal Migration

human movement within a nation-state, such as going westward and southward movements in the US`

### External Migration

migration across an international border

### Interregional Migration

movement from one region of a country to another

### Step Migration

migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city

### Counter Migration

migration back to an original area in which people had left (e.g., migration increases after natural disasters, yet many eventually return after a time)

### Intervening Opportunity

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

### Distance-decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

### Refugee

a person who has to leave his or her country to find safety.

### Temporary Refugees

refugees encamped in a host country or host region while waiting for resettlement

### Permanent Refugee

Refugee who does not return to their country of origin and is given permanent residence status in the new country

### International Refugee

Refugees who have crossed one or more international boundaries duting their dislocation, searching for asylum in a different country.

### Intranational Refugee

those who have abandoned their homes but not their country

### Immigration Laws

laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into the state

### Eugenic population policy

government policy designed to favor one race over another

### Expansive population policy

government policy that encourages large families and raises the rate of population growth

### Restrictive population policy

Government policy designed to reduce the rate of natural increase.

### Negative population growth

the actual decline in population due to less than replacement births or extensive diseases

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